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TYLER, Erastus Barnard, soldier, was born in West Bloomfield, N. Y., April 24, 1822. He attended Granville college, Ohio, and engaged in business until April, 1861, when he joined the Federal army and was commissioned colonel of 7th Ohio volunteers. He took part in the Valley campaign, March 23-June 10, 1862, being engaged in the battles of Cross Keys, Winchester and Port Republic. He commanded the 1st brigade, 3d division, 5th army corps, center grand division, Army of the Potomac, at Fredericksburg, Va., where he was wounded, Dec. 13, 1862, and in the Chancellorsville campaign. He was promoted brigadier-general, May 14, 1862, and was mustered out of service, Aug. 24, 1865. He engaged in business in Baltimore, and died at Calverton, Md., Jan. 9, 1891.

TYLER, James Hoge, governor of Virginia, was born in Caroline county, Va., Aug. 11, 1846; son of George Tyler. He attended Minor's academic school, Albemarle county, Va., and in 1861 joined the Confederate army as a private, serving throughout the war. He was state senator in 1877; lieutenant-governor of Virginia, 1890-94, and was elected governor in 1897 for the term expiring in 1902. He then retired to his farm in Virginia and engaged in agriculture.

TYLER, John, governor of Virginia, was born in James City county, Va., Feb. 28, 1747; son of John and Anne (Contesse) Tyler; grandson of John and Elizabeth (Low) Tyler and of Dr. Louis and Mary (Morris) Contesse ; great-grandson of Henry and Elizabeth (Chiles) Tyler; great2grandson of Henry and Ann (Orchard) Tyler and of Walter and Susannah Chiles, and great3grandson of Col. Walter Chiles, a member of the council of state in 1652. His father, John Tyler, was marshal of the honorable court of the viceadmiralty of the colony of Virginia, and the last to hold that office under royal appointment in Virginia. His great-grandfather, Henry Tyler, emigrated, it is believed, from Shropshire, England, about 1640, and located two hundred and fifty-four acres of land at Middle Plantation (now Williamsburg), Va., where he was justice of the peace for York county in 1652. His maternal grandfather, Louis Contesse, a French Huguenot, immigrated to America about 1715, and practised medicine in Williamsburg, Va. John Tyler, the governor, attended the grammar school of William and Mary college, 1754, studied law under Robert Carter Nicholas, treasurer of Virginia, and in 1772 began practice in Charles City county. He was a member of the vigilance committee to prevent the use of merchandise shipped from Great Britain; led a company of volunteers to join Patrick Henry in reclaiming the powder for the colony, and on Sept. 11, 1775, was commissioned captain. He was appointed by ordinance of the

convention of July 5, 1776, one of the judges of admiralty to pass upon cases under the ordinance for the seizure of the property of British subjects. He was married in 1776 to Mary, daughter of Robert Armistead, and a descendant of Col. Anthony and Hannah (Ellyson) Armistead of Elizabeth City county. He was a member of the house of delegates, 1778-81; speaker of the house, 1781-85, and in 1780 was elected a member of the governor's council, but declined the honor and remained in the legislature. He drew the last bill for paper money in Virginia, and in 1784 moved to amend the Articles of Confederation with the consent of the twelve states. In 1785 he secured the passage of a resolution to convene an assembly of delegates at Annapolis to revise the articles, and the convention met, Sept. 5, 1786. In December, 1785, he was elected judge of the admiralty court, and on June 2, 1788, was a member of the convention to amend the Virginia constitution, and was chosen vice-president of the convention. He was judge of the general court of Virginia, 1788-1808, and in the case of Kamper vs. Hawkins, he affirmed the power of the courts to overrule any legislative acts conflicting with the constitution. This principle was sanctioned by the supreme court of the United States in 1801. He served as governor of Virginia from 1808 till 1811, when he resigned to accept the office of judge of the U.S. district court of Virginia, made vacant by the death of Judge Griffin, and passed upon the first prize case in the war of 1812. He was a visitor of William and Mary college, and in 1809 secured the establishment of the literary fund. He died at " Greenway," Charles City county, Va., Jan. 6, 1813.

TYLER, John, tenth president of the United States, was born at "Greenway," Charles City county, Va., March 29, 1790; son of Governor John (q.v.) and Mary (Armistead) Tyler; grandson of John and Anne (Contesse) Tyler, and of Robert and Anne (Shields) Armistead of York county, Va. He was graduated from William and Mary college in 1807; admitted to the bar in 1809, and established himself in Charles City county, obtaining an extensive practice. He was nominated


John Tyler

for representative in the state legislature, in 1810, but declined the honor until December, 1811, when, having reached his majority, he

was chosen a member of the house of delegates, where he proposed resolutions disapproving of the conduct of the senators from Virginia in favor of a renewal of the charter of the Bank of the United States against instructions to the contrary. He was married, March 29, 1813, to Letitia, daughter of Robert and Mary (Browne) Christian of New Kent county., Va. When the legislature of Virginia adjourned, May 26, 1813, Tyler raised a company of riflemen for the defense of Richmond. He devised a system of drill for his corps, and served with the 52d regiment of Virginia militia at Williamsburg, but his command was not brought into action. He returned to the legislature and served by successive reelections until 1816, and during the session of 1815-16 was elected one of the executive council. In November, 1816, he was elected a representative in the 14th congress to fill a vacancy caused by the death of John Clopton. He was reelected to the 15th and 16th congresses, 1817-21, where he favored the admission of Missouri without restriction, and opposed a protective tariff. He declined re-election in 1821, and returned to private life, having purchased the ancestral homestead" Greenway." In 1823 he was elected to the house of delegates, and was defeated for U.S. senator by Littleton W. Tazewell in 1824. He opposed the removal of William and Mary college to Richmond: was made successively


rector and chancellor of the college; was elected governor of the state by a large majority in 1825, to succeed James Pleasants; unanimously reelected in 1826, and served till March 3, 1827, when he was elected to the U.S. senate over John Randolph by a majority of five votes. In the senate he opposed the "tariff of abominations" of 1828, and the system of internal improvements; was a member of the Virginia convention for revising the state constitution, in February, 1830, and supported Andrew Jackson for President in 1832. While he did not favor nullification, he condemned Jackson's proclamation against South Carolina, and was greatly instrumental in influencing Henry Clay to introduce the compromise tariff, Feb. 12, 1833, and was the

only nay to thirty-two yeas, when the force bill was put to vote on its third reading and passage, Feb. 30, 1833. He was elected president pro tempore of the U.S. senate, March 3, 1835, and though opposed to the Bank of the United States, he disapproved of President Jackson's arbitrary method of dealing with the institution, and voted in the affirmative to Henry Clay's motion to censure the President. He was nominated for VicePresident on the States' Rights Whig ticket with Hugh L. White for President in 1836. Martin Van Buren, at the meeting of the electoral college in 1837, was elected President, when Mr. Tyler received 47 votes for Vice-President. There being no choice for Vice-President, the election devolved upon the U.S. senate, who chose Richard M. Johnson for the office. When Thomas H. Benton proposed his famous resolution "expunging" Henry Clay's censure of President Jackson, Tyler, refusing to obey instructions from the state legislature to vote in the affirmative, resigned his seat, Feb. 29, 1836, and returned home. He was chosen president of the Virginia African Colonization society at its seventh anniversary, Jan. 18, 1838, and in the same year was returned to the state legislature. In 1839 he was the candidate for re-election to the U.S. senate, against William C. Rives, but the election was postponed on account of a deadlock. In the Whig convention held at Harrisburg, Dec. 4, 1839, William Henry Harrison was nominated for President, and John Tyler for Vice-President. The Whig party at this time was a union of factions opposed to the Democrats, having no common party principles except the general one of reform. After an excitable campaign, popularly known as the "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" campaign of 1840, Harrison and Tyler were elected, and one month after the inauguration, President Harrison died and Tyler succeeded to the office of President. He retained the cabinet selected by President Harrison, and friction was caused by the proposed establishment of a national bank by Henry Clay, and its opposition by the President, who in his message to congress reserved the ultimate power of rejecting any measure which he thought conflicted with the constitution, or jeopardized the prosperity of the country. Clay, however, disregarded this warning, and on June 7, 1841, proposed in the senate the establishment of a national bank. The bill abolishing Van Buren's sub-treasury system passed both houses, and was signed by the President, and until a substitute could be provided the finances of the government were left in the naked keeping of the President. The substitute provided by Mr. Clay, a bill establishing a Bank of the United States, passed both houses, but was vetoed by the President, Aug. 16, 1841. Another bill, creating a


bank with the same national powers, passed the senate, Sept. 4, 1841, and the President's veto was read, Sept. 9, 1841. On Sept. 11, 1841, the entire cabinet with the exception of Daniel Webster, secretary of state, resigned, and on Sept. 13, 1841, the President appointed Walter Forward of Pennsylvania, secretary of the treasury, John McLean of Ohio, secretary of war, Abel P. Upshur of Virginia, secretary of the navy, Charles A. Wickliffe of Kentucky, postmaster-general, and Hugh S. Legaré of South Carolina, attorneygeneral. At the next session the President proposed to congress a financial system which he called the exchequer, but congress would not agree to it, although it was highly endorsed by Mr. Webster, and thus the revenue continued in the hands of the President throughout his administration. At the second session of congress the tariff was the important subject under discussion. The revenue had steadily diminished since 1837, and the States were in debt $200,000, 000. A bankrupt bill, a loan bill for $12,000,000, and a bill distributing the proceeds of the sales of the public lands were passed at the extra session in 1841, the distribution bill providing that the distribution should suspend when the tariff was raised above the twenty per cent. provided in the compromise tariff act. On June 25, 1842, a bill providing for a tariff above twenty per cent., and yet containing the distribution clause, passed congress, but the President vetoed it as contrary to the policy of the extra session. Another bill passed with the same objectionable features, and the President vetoed that also. A committee appointed by congress condemned this veto as an "unwarrantable assumption of power," and referred to the impeachment of the President. But after this the distribution clause was dropped, and the tariff bill, unencumbered with this provision, received the President's approval as a revenue measure. Congress passed the distribution bill, but the President disposed of it by a pocket veto, and on Aug. 31, 1842, congress adjourned. The elections in the fall resulted in a general rout of the Whigs, and after this time the condition of the country rapidly improved. The revenue soon exceeded the expenses, and the national debt was reduced. At the last congress of President Tyler's administration, the question of internal improvements was taken up, to which he had been opposed as he had been to the bank and protective tariff. Then two bills passed, the first of which, being for merely local improvements, he vetoed, and the second, being for the Mississippi river, the great common highway of the nation, he approved. The principal state affairs of his administration were the Ashburton treaty of 1842, by which an arbitrary line was adopted for the northeastern boundary, the Ore

gon question, and the annexation of Texas, March 1, 1845. In 1843, after closing the Ashburton treaty, Daniel Webster resigned the portfolio of state and Hugh S. Legaré of South Carolina was appointed, May 9, 1843. On June 16, 1843, Mr. Legaré died, and the office was filled by Abel P. Upshur of Virginia, who served until Feb. 28, 1844, when John C. Calhoun of South Carolina succeeded. Other cabinet appointments made by President Tyler were: John C. Spencer of New York, to succeed John McLean of Ohio as secretary of war in 1841, and upon Spencer's appointment to succeed Walter Forward as secretary of the treasury in 1843, was succeeded by James M. Porter, and the latter by William Wilkins in 1844. George M. Bibb succeeded Spencer in the treasury, 1844; David Henshaw of Massachusetts succeeded Abel P. Upshur, as secretary of the navy, in 1843, and was succeeded by Thomas W. Gilmer of Virginia, and John Y. Mason of Virginia, in 1844, and John Nelson of Maryland succeeded Hugh S. Legaré as attorney-general in 1843. During President Tyler's administration the following diplomatic appointments were made: Edward Everett of Massachusetts, minister to Great Britain; Lewis Cass of Ohio, minister to France, until 1842, when Henry Ledyard of Michigan became chargé d'affaires, serving until the appointment of William R. King of Alabama, in 1844; Daniel Jenifer of Maryland, minister to Austria; Charles S. Todd of Kentucky, minister to Russia; Waddy Thompson, minister to Mexico; Washington Irving of New York, minister to Spain, and Caleb Cushing, minister to China. Mr. Tyler was nominated for President by a convention of his friends, held in Baltimore, May 27, 1844, and at the same time James Knox Polk was nominated for President, by the Democratic national convention held in the same city, for the purpose of securing the success of the Texas question. Mr. Tyler withdrew from the presidential contest in August, 1844, and threw his influence in favor of Polk, and after Polk's inauguration he removed to his estate "Sherwood Forest" on the James river. He was married, secondly, June 26, 1844, to Julia, daughter of David Gardiner of New York, and Juliana MacLachlan, his wife. A son by this marriage, Lyon Gardiner Tyler (q.v.), wrote "The Letters and Times of the Tylers" (3 vols., 1884-1896). In 1861 Mr. Tyler was appointed a commissioner from Virginia to visit President Buchanan and delay if possible any acts of hostility until the Washington peace congress, called for Feb. 4, 1861, had met, and he was chosen president of the convention. When that convention adjourned without any satisfactory solution of the troubles, Tyler, despairing of peace, advocated secession of the state in the convention of Virginia, held in

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