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geon at Fort Walla Walla, W. T., until 1879, when he was appointed member and secretary of the Havana yellow fever commission of the national board of health. He was a delegate to the international sanitary conference at Rome, Italy, in 1885; was appointed by President Cleveland to make investigations in Brazil, Mexico and Cuba, relating to the etiology and prevention of yellow fever by inoculation, 1887-89; was commissioned deputy surgeon-general, Jan. 12, 1891; brigadier-general and surgeon-general, May 30, 1893; was in command of the medical department, U.S. army, in the war with Spain in 1898, and was retired, June 8, 1902. General Sternberg acquired wide reputation as a bacteriologist. He made the discovery of the action of the white blood corpuscles on disease germs, afterward made famous by Metchnikoff in Europe; was a delegate to the international medical congress at Moscow, Russia, Aug. 19-26, 1897, and addressed the American Medical association on "Sanitary Lessons of the War", June 8, 1899. He was elected a member of the American Public Health association in 1879, serving as its president in 1887; president of the American Medical association in 1898, and a member of various other medical organizations. He is the author of: Photo Micrographs and How to Make Them (1883); Bacteria, Malarial Diseases (1884); Manual of Bacteriology (1893); Text Book of Bacteriology (1895); Immunity, Protective Inoculations, and Serum-Therapy (1897), and of numerous scientific articles and government reports.

STERNER, Albert Edward, artist, was born in London, England, March 8, 1863. He was educated in Julien's academy, Birmingham, England, and studied art in the École des Beaux Arts, Paris, France. He came to the United States in 1881; engaged as an artist, scene painter and lithographer in Chicago, Ill., 188185, and in the latter year opened a studio in New York city, becoming an illustrator for Harper's, Century and Scribner's magazines. His canvas, The Bachelor, received honorable mention at the Paris Salon, and he was also awarded a bronze medal at the Paris exposition of 1900. He was a member of the American Water Color society. He illustrated: George W. Curtis's "Prue and I"; 'Coppee's Tales" (1891); "Poe's Works" (1894), and "Eleanor" by Mrs. Humphrey Ward (1900), and many stories and articles in the leading magazines. He was residing in Nutley, N.J., in 1903. STERRETT, John Robert Sitlington, educator and archæologist, was born at Rockbridge Baths, Va., March 4, 1851; son of Robert Dunlap (1827-1852) and Nancy Snyder (Sitlington) (1833– 1878) Sterrett, natives of Virginia; grandson of Robert (1789-1862), a native of Ireland, and Isabella (Dunlap) (1794-1865), a native of Virginia,


Sterrett, and of Robert (1808-1890) and Nancy (Snyder) (1811-1833) Sitlington. The Sterretts were Scotch, who settled in Londonderry, Ireland; the Sitlingtons emigrated from Scotland to Ireland and from Larne, Ireland, to Virginia in 1760-74. He attended the University of Virginia in 1868-72, and was graduated from the University of Munich, Ph.D., 1880. He was married, March 1, 1891, to Josephine Moseley daughter of Joel Shrewsbury and Frances Cable (Friend) Quarrier of Charleston, W. Va. He was a student at the universities at Leipzig and Berlin and at the Polytechnicum of Aachen, 1872-75; at the University of Athens, Greece, 1875-77; in Rome and Italy, 1877-78; in Munich, 1878-80; at the American School of Classical Studies, Athens, 1882-83; assisted the director of the same, 188384; was a member of the Assos expedition, 1883; of the British Exploration Fund, 1883; leader of the expedition to Asia Minor in 1884; a member of the Wolfe expedition to Assyria and Babylonia, 1884-85; leader of the Wolfe expedition to Asia Minor, 1885; professor of Greek language and literature at Miami university, Oxford, Ohio, 1886-88; professor of Greek at the University of Texas, 1888-92; visiting lecturer at Cornell university in 1890, and professor of Greek at Amherst college, Mass., 1892-1901, in the meantime serving as professor of Greek at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 1896-97. In 1901 he became professor of Greek at Cornell university. He received the honorary degree of LL.D. from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1902. He was a corresponding member of the Imperial German Archæological institute; member of the British Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies; of the American Philological association; of the American Archæological Institute; of the National Geographic society, and a member of the board of managers of the American School of Classical Studies, Athens, Greece. He was joint editor of the American Journal of Archæology; co-editor of Cornell Classical Studies; and author of Qua in re Hymni Homerici quinque majores inter se differant (1881); Inscriptions of Sebaste (1883); Inscriptions of Assos (1885); Inscriptions of Tralles (1885); Preliminary Report of Journey in Asia Minor (1885); Epigraphical Journey in Asia Minor (1888); Wolfe Expedition in Asia Minor (1888); Leaflets from the Notebook of a Traveling Archaeologist (1889); the magazine articles: Troglodytes of Cappadocia (1900); Glimpses of Asia Minor (1901); The Torch-Race (1902).

STETSON, Charlotte Perkins, author, was born in Hartford, Conn., July 3, 1860; daughter of Frederic Beecher and Mary Ann Fitch (Westcott) Perkins; granddaughter of Thomas C. and Mary (Beecher) Perkins, and of Henry and Cla

rissa Fitch (Perkins) Westcott, and great-granddaughter of Lyman Beecher (q.v.). Her education was largely self-acquired by extensive and systematic reading. She began to write for publication at an early age, and in 1888 removed to California, where she was active as a lecturer in various economic reforms and movements. She was married first, in May, 1884, to Charles Walter Stetson of Providence, R.I., and secondly, June 11, 1900, to George Houghton Gilman of New York city. The subjects of her lectures delivered in the principal cities of the United States and of Great Britain, include: "Mother, Home and Child," a series of three lectures; "Public Ethics"; "What Work Is "; " End of the Servant Question"; "Body and Soul"; "The Social Organism"; "The Real Things "" Our Brains and What Ails Them"; "America's Place To-day." She is the author of: Similar Cases, satirical verses published in the Nationalist (1890); The Labor Movement, an essay for which she received a gold medal from the Alameda County Trades and Labor union (1892); Women and Economics (1898, 2d ed., 1899); In This Our World, verse (1898); The Yellow Wall Paper (1899); Concerning Children (1900); The Home and Its Work (1903).

STETSON, Herbet Lee, educator, was born in Greene, Maine, Oct. 16, 1848; son of Reuben and Christiana (Thompson) Stetson; grandson of Turner and Thankful (Lumbard) Stetson, and of David and Lydia (Stackpole) Thompson, and a descendant of Cornet Roberts Stetson, who came from Kent, England, and settled in Scituate, Mass., in 1634. He was married in 1871, to Mary, daughter of the Rev. Nathan C. and Lucy Almeda (Dunn) Clifford of Monmouth, Maine. He graduated from the Baptist Union Theological seminary, 1878; was pastor of the Baptist church, Logansport, Ind., 1878-88; one of the editors of the Indiana Baptist, 1886-89; pastor of the First Baptist church, Des Moines, Iowa, 1888-89; president of Des Moines college and professor of history and philosophy, 1889-1901; became professor of psychology and pedagogy, Kalamazoo college, in 1901; and was lecturer at the University of Chicago, summer of 1902. He received the following degrees; B.D., Baptist Union Thelogical seminary, 1878; A.M., Franklin college, 1886, and D.D., ibid., 1889 ; B.D., University of Chicago, 1901, and LL.D., Des Moines college, 1902. In 1903 he was residing at Kalamazoo, Mich.

STETSON, John Batterson, philanthropist, was born in Orange, N.J., May 5, 1830. He learned the hat trade, which he followed independently in Orange, N.J., until 1865. In that year he removed to Philadelphia, Pa., where he formed and became president of the John B. Stetson company. In connection with the fac

tories of the corporation, reading rooms, a hall, dispensary, armory, savings bank and other conveniences were established for the employees. Mr. Stetson built Elizabeth Hall for the Deland university, Florida, and gave large sums of money to the institution, the name of which was changed to John B. Stetson university. He was residing in Ashbourne, Pa., in 1903.

STETSON, Willis Kimball, librarian, was born in Natick, Mass., May 8, 1848; son of Daniel Kimball and Mary Weeks (Sanborn) Stetson ; grandson of Samuel and Mary (Kimball) Stetson, and of Dearborn and Joanna Chase (Durgin) Sanborn, and a descendant of Robert Stetson, who settled in Scituate, Mass, about 1633. He was graduated from Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn., A.B., 1881, A.M., 1884; taught school in Ansonia, Conn., during the fall of 1881; was associated with the library of Wesleyan university from 1882-87; was librarian of the Russell library, Middletown, Conn., 1884-87, and of the public library at New Haven, Conn., from 1887. He was married, Nov. 25, 1886, to Lillian Alla, daughter of John A. and Alla (Sullivan) Minor of Middletown, Conn.

STEUART, George Hume, soldier, was born in Baltimore, Md., Aug. 24, 1828. He was graduated from the United States Military academy, and promoted brevet 2d lieutenant, 2d dragoons, July 1, 1848; served on frontier duty and on the march through Texas to Austin, 1848-49; was promoted 2d lieutenant, 2d dragoons, Nov. 11, 1849; was on duty at Fort Graham, Tex., 184951, and at various forts in Texas, 1851-55, escorting Lieutenant-Colonel Freeman in an inspection tour through Texas in 1853, and was promoted 1st lieutenant, 1st cavalry, March 3, 1855. He was on recruiting service; frontier duty at Fort Leavenworth, Kan., and in the Sioux expedition, 1855, being promoted captain, Dec. 20; served in the Cheyenne expedition, being engaged in a skirmish near Fort Kearny, Neb., Aug. 26, 1856, and was again on duty at Fort Leavenworth, 1857-58. He served in the Utah expedition, 1858; at Fort Riley, Kan., 1858-60, scouting to Arkansas river, 1859; in the Kiowa and Camanche expedition and at Fort Wise, Col., 1860, and was on leave of absence, 1860-61. He resigned his commission, April 22, 1861, and joined the Confederate army; was commissioned lieutenantcolonel, 1st Maryland infantry, June 16, 1861; was promoted colonel in July, 1861, and brigadiergeneral in March, 1862. He led the cavalry with General Jackson in advance upon General Banks, May, 1862, and was subsequently in command of an infantry brigade. He was wounded at Cross Keys, Va., June 8, 1862; participated in an attack on Culp's Hill, Gettysburg, July, 1863; occupied the right parallel of the Confederate

center, known as the "bloody angle," at the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, May 9-12, 1864; was taken prisoner with 4,000 of his men but was exchanged some months afterward, and participated in the battle of Five Forks, April 1, 1865. After the war he returned to Baltimore, Md., and in 1903 was residing at South River, Anne Arundel county, Md.

STEUBEN, Friedrich Wilhelm August Heinrich Ferdinand von, soldier, was born at Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 17, 1730. He entered the Prussian army in 1747, attained the rank of adjutant-general and aide-de-camp to Frederick the Great, and was distinguished during the seven years' war. He was appointed grand marshal to the Prince of Hohenzollern and made canon of the cathedral of Haselberg, which lucrative position he resigned in 1777 and sailed to America on the earnest solicitation of the Count St. Germain, the French minister of war, to instruct the patriot soldiers in military tactics and discipline. He arrived at Portsmouth, N.H., in December, 1777, and offered his services to General Washington, proposing that if the independence of the colonies were established, he was to



receive the income he had relinquished, and be paid for his services in the army, otherwise he was to receive nothing. He was appointed inspector-general of the army with the rank of major-general, and did much to reorganize the military department and alleviate the sufferings of the men at Valley Forge. He established an inspector-general's department, and soon brought the army into a condition of organization and discipline never before attained. He commanded the left wing at the battle of Monmouth, where he rallied the retreating troops of General Charles Lee. In 1780 he published a manual of "Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States." He commanded the trenches at the siege of Yorktown, and served on the staff of General Lafayette, with whom he was associated in the trial of Major André in 1780. At

the close of the war he was ordered to Canada to demand the surrender of the frontier posts, but being unsuccessful he returned and resigned from the army. In 1790 congress voted him an annuity of $2,500, and he was presented with grants of land in Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. He retired to the New York estate, devoting himself to literature. He was stricken with paralysis, Nov. 22, 1794, from which he never recovered. He left his entire property to Colonel North, his aide, and was buried near his house, wrapped in his military cloak and with the star of honor on his breast. He died in Steubenville, N.Y., Nov. 28, 1794.

STEVENS, Abel, author, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 19, 1815. He matriculated at Wesleyan university with the class of 1834, but he left college after completing the scientific course; was pastor of Church Street and Bennett Street church in Boston, Mass., 1834-37; traveled in Europe, 1837, and after his return was pastor at Providence, R.I., 1837-39. He edited Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass., 1840-52; National Magazine, New York city, 1853-54; revisited Europe, 1855, and edited the Christian Advocate and Journal, New York city, 1856-60. He was pastor in New York city, 1860-62; at Mamaroneck, N.Y., 1862-65; joint-editor of the Methodist, 1865-73; traveled extensively in Europe and made a tour around the world, subsequently becoming established as pastor of the Union church at Geneva, Switzerland, and also engaged in literary work. He received the honorary degree of A.M. from Brown university in 1839 and that of LL.D. from Indiana university in 1856. He is the author of: Memorials of the Introduction of Iethodism into New England (1847-52); History of the Religious Movement of the Eighteenth Century, called Methodism (1858-61); Life and Times of Nathan Bangs (1863); History of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States (186467, Vol. V, 1895); The Centenary of American Methodism (1865); The Women of Methodism; Its Three Foundresses (1866); A Compendious History of American Methodism (1867); Madam de Staël; A Study of her Life and Times (1881); Character Sketches (1882); Christian Work and Consolation (1885), and numerous essays, sermons and contributions to magazines. He died in San José, Cal., Sept. 11, 1897.

STEVENS, Alexander H. Hogden, surgeon, was born in New York city, Sept. 4, 1789; son of Ebenezer and (Ledyard) Stevens. His father, one of the company that destroyed the tea in Boston harbor, served in the Patriot army as an officer of artillery; took part in the capture of Quebec and Ticonderoga, and commanded the artillery in the siege of Yorktown. Alexander attended school at Plainfield, N.J., and was graduated from


Yale in 1807. He studied medicine with Dr. Edward Miller in New York city; was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, M.D., in 1811, and completed his studies abroad in England and Paris. He was appointed surgeon in the U.S. army in 1812 and later established a practice in New York city. He was professor of surgery at the New York Medical Institution, 1814-18; professor of surgery at Rutgers college; was surgeon to the New York Hospital, where he introduced the European method of instruction; was professor of the principles and practice of surgery at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1825-38, and professor emeritus, 1838-69. He was appointed president of the college in 1841. He was president of the New York State Medical society; vice-president of the American Medical association in 1847, and president in 1848. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by the Regents of the University of the State of New York in 1849. He is the author of an edition of Sir Astley Cooper's "First Lines of Surgery" (1822), and of numerous scientific articles in the leading medical journals. He died in New York city, March 30, 1869.

STEVENS Benjamin Franklin, bibliographer, was born in Barnet, Vt., Feb. 19, 1833; son of Henry Stevens (1791-1867); grandson of Enos Stevens (1739-1808), author of a valuable historical journal dating, 1777-83; great-grandson of Capt. Phinhehas Stephens (1707-56), a colonial soldier, and a descendant of Thomas Stevens of London, England. His father was the founder and first president of the Vermont Historical society. He was educated in the district school of Barnet and at the University of Vermont, and in 1860 went to London, England., where he became associated in the book-selling business with his brother Henry (q.v.), and was appointed U.S. despatch agent and also purchasing agent for American libraries. He was married, Jan. 28, 1865, to Charlotte, daughter of Charles Whittingham, a pioneer printer of London, after whose death he conducted the Chiswick press. Charlotte Whittingham was an artist of considerable reputation. With a staff of assistants, Mr. Stevens was engaged for over thirty years in making manuscript chronology and an alphabetical catalogue index of American papers in many of the archives in England, France, Holland and Spain, from 1763 to 1784, and facsimiles of 2107 important hisorical manuscripts in European archives, relating to America, 1773-83, with descriptions, editorial notes and translations. He was also instrumental in making a facsimile, by photographing from the original manuscript in the foreign office in Paris, of the MS. Codex Columbus, entitled “ His Own Book of Privileges, 1502, with English translation." His other noted fac

similes include: The Clinton Campaign in Virginia, 1781; "Gen. Sir William Howe's Orderly Book from June 17, 1775, to May 26, 1776,” and the unpublished British Headquarters colored manuscript map of New York and environs (1782), which he disovered in the war office, London, and issued in January, 1901. He calendared for the Royal commission on Historical Manuscripts; the American portion of Earl of Dartmouth's papers; Headquarters papers of the British commanders-in-chief of America: Gens. Sir William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, and Sir Guy Carlton, and compiled the unpublished manuscript papers pertaining to the Provincial troops and to the Loyalists during the American Revolution. He died at his home, The Sheaves, Surbiton, Surrey, England, March 15, 1902.

STEVENS, Charles Ellis, educator, was born in Boston, July 5, 1853; son of James Edward Poole and Mary Pitkin (Abrams) Stevens. He was a special student in the senior class of the University of Pennsylvania in 1871; studied at Yale college, 1872-73, and was graduated from the Berkeley Divinity school, Middletown, Conn., 1875, continuing his studies abroad in 1876. He was married to Ella Montieth, daughter of Walter Montieth Aikman of Brooklyn, N.Y. He was assistant minister of Grace church, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1876-77; was ordained priest in 1877; rector of the Church of Ascension at Brooklyn, 1877-80; was secretary of the auxiliary branch of the Protestant Episcopal board of missions in the United States, 1878-01; became examining chaplain of the diocese of Long Island, N.Y., in 1886; was arch-deacon of Brooklyn, 1887-91, and rector of Christ church, Philadelphia, Pa., from 1891. He was a special lecturer on constitutional law at the University of Wooster, Ohio, 1888; of the same at St. Stephen's college, Annandale, N.Y., 1890, and of history and political science there, 1891, and special lecturer of constitutional law and professor of constitutional history and civil polity at the University of the City of New York, 1891. He received the degree of B.D. from Nashotah Theological seminary, Wisconsin ; that of LL.D. from the University of Wooster, 1888, and in the same year, D.C.L. from King's college, Nova Scotia, Canada. He was a fellow of the Royal Geographical society; a member of the Society of Antiquaries of Edinburgh, and of other European and American learned societies; was made Knight Commander of the Order of Christ, by the king of Portugal; Knight of the.. Order of Isabella of Castile, by the queen regent of Spain, and officer of the Académie de France, in recognition of his services to political science. He is the author of: Sources of the Constitution of the United States (1894); The Romance of Arenfels, and Other Tales of the Rhine (1897).

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STEVENS, Edwin Augustus, engineer, was born in Hoboken, N.J., July 28, 1795; son of John and Rachel (Cox) Stevens. He was educated by private tutors and engaged with his father and brothers in practical engineering. He became treasurer and general manager of the Camden and Amboy railroad on its incorporation in 1830, and he invented a plow, known as the Stevens plow, and an airtight fire-room to apply forced draught in steamers. He assisted his brother in building the Stevens battery and in all the railroad projects carried out by the brothers. At the beginning of the civil war he offered to complete the Stevens battery, and built a small iron-clad, the Naugatuck, to demonstrate the practicability of the larger vessel. The Naugatuck was accepted by the government and took part in the advance of the Federal fleet up the James river in 1862. The government, however, refused to appropriate money to finish the larger battery, and at his death Mr. Stevens left the vessel, with $1,000,000 for its completion, to the state of New Jersey. He left, by his will, an endowment of $500,000; a building fund of $150,000 and a block of ground in Hoboken for the "erection and maintenance of an institution of learning", which resulted in the Stevens Institute of Technology, a school of mechanical engineering, opened in 1871 with Dr. Henry Morton (q.v.) as president, and to which institution Andrew Carnegie in 1899 gave $65,000 to erect the Carnegie Laboratory of Engineering, inaugurated, Feb. 6, 1902, in connection with which occasion Mr. Carnegie gave $100,000 more as an endowment to take care of the building. Mr. Stevens was married in 1854, to Martha Bayard, daughter of Albert B. and Caroline (Bayard) Dod of Princeton, who survived him and devoted property in real-estate valued at $30,000 in 1898 to the Stevens Institute of Technology, and large sums of money approximating a quarter of a million of dollars for the benefit of religious and charitable institutions in Hoboken, N.J. Their son, Edwin Agustus Stevens, became a mechanical engineer and promoter in the public affairs of the city of Hoboken and the state of New Jersey. Edwin Agustus Stevens, Sr., died in Paris, France, Aug. 8, 1868.

STEVENS, George Barker, educator and author, was born in Spencer, Tioga county, N.Y.,

July 13, 1854; son of Thomas Jackson and Weltha (Barker) Stevens; grandson of Moses and Amy (Spaulding) Barker. He was a student at Cornell university, 1873-75; and was graduated from the University of Rochester, A.B., 1877, and from Yale university, B.D., 1880. He was married, Nov. 23, 1880, to Kate Abell, daughter of Hampton and Jeannette (Loomis) Mattison of Oswego, N.Y. He was pastor of the First Congregational church at Buffalo, N. Y., 1880-82; of the First Presbyterian church at Watertown, N.Y., 1882-85, and was a student in the universities of Germany, 1885-86. He was professor of New Testament criticism and interpretation at Yale university, 1886-95, and of systematic theology from 1895. He received the degree of Ph. D. from Syracuse university in 1883, that of D.D. from the University of Jena, Germany, in 1886, and from Illinois college in 1902, and that of LL.D. from the University of Rochester in 1902. He edited the "Homilies of Chrysostom on the Acts and Romans" for Dr. Philip Schaff's edition of "Post-Nicene Church Fathers," and is the author of: The Pauline Theology (1892); The Johannine Theology (1894); A Short Commentary on Galatians (1894); Doctrine and Life (1895); The Epistle of Paul in Modern English (1898); The Theology of the New Testament (1899): The Messages of Paul (1900); The Messages of the Apostles (1900); The Teaching of Jesus (1901), and numerous theological and philosophical magazine articles.

STEVENS, Henry, bibliographer, was born in Barnet, Vt., Aug. 24, 1819; brother of Benjamin Franklin Stevens (q.v.). He attended the Lyndon academy, Vt., in 1836; taught school; served as a clerk in the treasury department at Washington, D.C., and was graduated from Yale, A.B., 9 1843, A.M., 1846, meanwhile studying law in Cambridge, Mass. Influenced by his father's

zeal in collecting American historical documents, he became engaged in research of a similar nature, and in 1845 went to London, England, where he acted as the purchasing agent for several public, private and collegiate libraries in America, including the Smithsonian Institution; the Library of Congress; the John Carter Brown library of Providence, R.I., to which he sold his entire collection of Americana, and the Lenox library in New York city, a very large portion of which was once his private possession. Through a letter of introduction from Jared Sparks (q.v.), who had first encouraged his search for Americana in foreign archives, he became acquainted with Sir Anthony Panizzi, chief librarian of the British Museum, who was em ployed by him to furnish the Museum with every book and pamphlet relating to North or South America that could be discovered in any lan

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