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guage, and also sent on special commissions to the great libraries of the continent. He was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 1852-86; a member of the committee for promoting the Caxton exhibition, 1877, and of the Librarians' association, 1877-86. He became a famous bibliographer, and his catalogues and bibliographical writings include: Catalogue of my English Library (1853); A Catalogue Raisonné of English Bibles (1854); Catalogue of a Library of Works relating to America (1854); American Bibliographer (1854); Catalogue of American Books in the Library of the British Museum (1857); Analytical Index to Colonial Documents of New Jersey in the State Paper Offices of England (1858); Catalogue of American Maps in the British Museum (1859); Catalogue of Canadian Books in the British Museum (1859); Catalogue of Mexican and other Spanish-American and West Indian Books in the British Museum (1859); Bibliotheca Americana (1861); Historical Nuggets (1862); The Humboldt Library (1863); Historical and Geographical Notes on the Earliest Discoveries in America (1869); Bibliotheca Historica (1870); Schedule of 2000 American Historical Nuggets (1870); Sebastian Cabot-John Cabot-O (1870); Bibliotheca Geographica et Historica (1872); American Books with Tails to 'Em (1873); Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition (1878); History of the Oxford Caxton Memorial Bible (1878); PhotoBibliography (1878); Historical Collections (188186); Who Spoils our New English Books (1885); Recollections of James Lenox (1886), and many essays, unpublished, notably a supplement to "Life of Panizzi" by Louis Fagan. He also edited "The Dawn of British Trade to the East

Indies (1886). He died in South Hampstead, England, Feb. 28, 1886.

STEVENS, Isaac Ingalls, soldier, was born in Andover, Mass., March 25, 1818; son of Isaac and Hannah (Cummings) Stevens; grandson of Jonathan and Susannah (Bragg) Stevens, and a descendant of John Stevens, one of the founders of Andover, 1640, who came from Cavesham, Oxford county, England, in 1638. He was graduated from the U.S. Military academy in 1839, and was commissioned 2d lieutenant and assigned to the corps of engineers. He served as assistant engineer of the construction of Fort Adams, Newport, R.I., 1839-41; of the repairs of Fairhaven battery, New Bedford Harbor, Mass.; was promoted 1st lieutenant, July 1, 1840; was married, Sept. 8, 1841, to Margaret Lyman, daughter of Benjamin and Harriet (Lyman) Hazard of Newport, R.I. He directed the repairs of the defenses of Portsmouth Harbor, N.H., 1842-46; and was superintending engineer in the construction of Fort Knox, Penobscot river, Maine, 1843-46. He was adjutant of engineers at the siege of Vera

Cruz, Mexico, in the battles of Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and in the assault and capture of the city of Mexico, where he was severely wounded. He was brevetted captain, Aug. 20, 1847, for Contreras and Churubusco, and major, Sept. 13, 1847, for Chapultepec. He was engaged as superintending engineer at Fort Knox, Maine, Portsmouth, N.H., and at Forts Pulaski and Jackson, Ga.; was in charge of the coast survey office, Washington, D.C., 1849-53; a member of the commission for improving the James and Appomattox rivers, Va., and Cape Fear river, N.C., in 1853. He resigned from the army, March 16, 1853, to accept the governorship of Washington Territory and charge of the exploration of the northern route for the Pacific railroad. He surveyed a belt of the country 200 miles wide, from St. Paul, Minn., to Puget Sound, and demonstrated the practicability of that route and the navigability for steamboats of the upper Columbia and Missouri. He was the first governor of Washington Territory, 1853-57; and superintendent of Indian affairs and commissioner to make treaties with over 30,000 Indians of the extreme northwest. He extinguished the Indian title to 150,000 square miles of territory, and instituted a beneficent policy for civilizing these tribes, who in 1903 were living under his treaties, and had made considerable progress in civilized habits. He also made a treaty with the warlike and hostile Blackfeet in October, 1855, and between them and the hunting tribes of Washington and Oregon, crossing the Rocky Mountains twice on this service. The disaffected Indians of these territories, having broken out in war against the whites while he was absent on this expedition, he forced his way across the Rocky Mountains in midwinter, called out the entire male population of his territory as volunteers, and waged so vigorous a campaign against the hostiles that before the close of 1856 they were subdued. He arrested certain white men, former employees of the Hudson Bay company, suspected of aiding the hostiles, and when Chief-Justice Edward Lander issued a writ of habeas corpus for their release, proclaimed martial law over Pierce and Thurston counties, arrested the chief justice and held him a prisoner until the close of the war. He resigned as governor in August, 1857, and was delegate from Washington Territory in the 35th and 36th congresses, 185761. In congress he vindicated his course as governor, caused his Indian treaties to be ratified, and the scrip he had issued to pay the expenses of the war to be assumed by the government. In the presidential contest of 1860 he was chairman of the Democratic national executive committee and conducted the canvass for the Breckinridge and Lane ticket. But when the southern leaders de

clared for the secession he offered his services to the Federal government, and was appointed colonel of the 79th Highlanders, New York volunteers; brigadier-general, Sept. 28, 1861, and majorgeneral, July 4th, 1862. He commanded the 3d brigade, Smith's division at the Chain Bridge in front of Washington in September and October, the 2d brigade of the Port Royal expedition in November, occupied Port Royal and adjacent islands in South Carolina, fought the action of Port Royal Ferry, Jan. 1, 1862, commanded the 1st division of the army under General Benham against Charleston, and led the main column at the battle of James Island, June 16, 1862, assaulting Fort Lamar at daylight with his entire command, but was repulsed with a loss of 600 killed and wounded, nearly all in twenty minutes. Transferred to Virginia, his division formed the 1st division of the 9th corps, on the organization of that corps at Newport News in July, 1862. Thence marching up the Rappahannock he joined Pope's army on the Rapidan, participated in the disastrous campaign that ensued, and distinguished himself at the second battle of Bull Run. At the battle of Chantilly he hurled his scanty force of six regiments upon Stonewall Jackson's corps as they were advancing to seize the main line of retreat in rear of Pope's army, with such force and determination that he drove back the center division, threw them into confusion and frustrated the movement, saving the Union army from a great disaster. While leading his old regiment, the 79th Highlanders, in this successful charge, he fell with the colors in his hand. He is buried in Newport, R.I., where the city erected a monument to him. His life, written by his son, may be found in the public libraries. He is the author of: Campaigns of the Rio Grande and of Mexico; Report of Northern Pacific Railroad Exploration (3 vols., published by congress), pamphlets upon the Northern Route, the Northwest, Letter to Emigrants, etc. He died near Chantilly, Va., Sept. 1, 1862.

STEVENS, John, delegate, was born in New York city, about 1708; son of John Stevens who arrived in New York from England in 1699, when about seventeen years of age, took up the study of law and was addmitted to practice in 1703. John Stevens was educated for the law and practised with his father, who was a large landholder in both the colonies of New York and New Jersey. He made his home in New Jersey, and became a commissioner to define the boundary line between the two colonies in 1774. In June, 1776, he resigned his councilorship under the crown and served as vice-president of the council of New Jersey, 1776-82, and as such officer presided over the two legislative benches, jointly. He was a delegate to the Continental con

gress, 1773-84, having been elected in November, 1783, and he attended the congress assembled at Annapolis, Md., Nov. 26, 1783, to June 3, 1784, and at Trenton, N.J., Nov. 1, to Dec. 24, 1784. He presided over the New Jersey state convention assembled, Dec. 18, 1787, to ratify the adoption of the Federal constitution. He died in New York city in May, 1792.

STEVENS, John, engineer, was born in New York city, in 1748 or 1749; son of John Stevens, delegate to the Continental congress (q.v.). He was graduated at King's college (now Columbia university) A.B., 1768, A.M., 1771, and was admitted to practice in the colonial courts in 1771. Being a patriot, he left New York city when the British troops took possession, and located on his father's estate, the island of Hoboken, New Jersey. He joined the Continental army and reached the rank of colonel. He also served as treasurer of New Jersey, 1776-79, and held various other state and county offices. When the British evacuated New York he returned to that city and was married to Rachel, daughter of John Cox of Bloomsbury, N.J. He turned his attention to invention and the application of steam to navigation. He witnessed the first experiment ever made in steamboating by invitation of John Fitch, the eccentric inventor, and he was convinced of the practicability of steam navigation when he saw Fitch's frail boat buffet the river current at Burlington on the Delaware in 1787. In 1790 he petitioned the U.S. congress to pass a law protecting American inventors, and his petition resulted in the passage of the act of April 10, 1790, which was the foundation of the patent law. He at once began experimenting at Hoboken on the Hudson, with an improved application of steam to a boat, and in 1792 applied for patents on his invention. In 1798, after five years, he launched his new craft, a fully equipped steamboat, and for several years ran it up and down and across the river, exciting the derision of vessel owners and landsmen. This was nine years before Fulton built the Clermont. In 1803 he designed the four-blade screw to propel his next steamboat, and put into this vessel the first condensing double-acting marine engine ever built in America. This second boat was operated on the Hudson three years before Fulton's Clermont was launched, but the influence of Livingston secured for Fulton the monopoly of steam navigation on the waters of the Hudson, and Stevens was driven from the field in 1808. Meantime, with his son, Robert L. Stevens, he had built the Phoenix, a large side-wheeler, which they steamed by sea to Philadelphia, in June, 1808, the first steamer to navigate the ocean, and it was profitably operated on the Delaware for six years. He patented the multi-tubular boiler in 1803; in

1811 established the first steam ferry; in February, 1812, urged the construction of a railroad between the Hudson River and the Great Lakes, rather than a waterway; in the same year invented the first monitor" for naval warfare with gun turrets to rotate by steam; in 1813 invented, built and operated a ferry boat made of two similar boats with a paddle wheel between, and operated by six horses on a tread; and in 1815 he obtained the first charter issued for a railroad in the United States, to be operated in place of the stage lines between the Raritan and Delaware rivers, which resulted in the Camden and Amboy railroad, incorporated in 1830. In 1823 he obtained with Horace Binney and Stephen Girard a charter for a railroad between Philadelphia and Lancaster, Pa. He built, upon a four wheeled truck, an engine, and ran this car on a track fitted with wooden rails, the first engine that ever ran on a railroad in America. The track was circular, in spite of which he attained a speed of twelve miles an hour. This was in 1828, when Mr. Stevens was seventy-five years old. He was a skilled engineer, a fine classical scholar, a student of natural philosophy and metaphysics and a practical horticulturist. He died in Hoboken, N.J., March 6, 1838.

STEVENS, John Austin, author, was born in New York city, Jan. 21, 1827; son of John Austin and Abby (Weld) Stevens; grandson of Lieutenant-Colonel Stevens (of the "Tea Party," who served in the 2d Continental artillery at Saratoga and Yorktown) and Lucretia Ledyard, his wife, and of Benjamin and Abby (Perkins) Weld, and a descendant of Erasmus Stevens, born in 1686, lieutenant in the Ancient Boston artillery of Massachusetts, 1739-41, and also a descendant of Richard Warren of the Mayflower compact. His father was a well known merchant and banker of New York city, and first president of the Merchants' exchange, who, as head of the treasury note committee, negotiated for a government loan of $150,000,000 in August, 1861. The son was graduated from Harvard in 1846; was married, June 5, 1855, to Margaret Antoinette, daughter of William Lewis and Mary Elizabeth (Babcock) Morris of New York, and engaged in business as a merchant in that city. He was secretary of the New York Chamber of Commerce, 1862-68; and of the Treasury Note committee; librarian of the New York Historical society, and a corresponding member of the Massachusetts Historical society. He founded and was first president of the Sons of the Revolution, and founded the Loyal National League, the first of these orders; and also the Society of Colonial Wars in Rhode Island, 1897. He was editor of the Magazine of American History for many years, and is the author of: Colonial Records of

the New York Chamber of Commerce (1867); Memoir of George Gibbs, Librarian (1873); Life of Albert Gallatin, "American Statesmen " Series (1884); Letters to the New York Times by Knickerbocker (1873); The Progress of New York in a Century (1876); The Expedition of Lafayette against Arnold (1878); The French in Rhode Island (1878-81); Memoir of William Kelby, Librarian (1898); Memorial of A. A. Low; New York City in the Nineteenth Century (1901); and numerous addresses and important contributions to enyclopædias, other reference books and magazines.

STEVENS, John Leavitt, diplomat, was born at Mt. Vernon, Maine, Aug. 1, 1820; son of John and Charlotte Stevens of Brentwood, N.H. He was educated in the Maine Wesleyan seminary and at the Waterville Liberal institute, subsequently studying theology. He was ordained in 1844, and was active in the Univeralist ministry until 1854, when he was obliged to give up the profession on account of ill health. In 1855 he was editor, with James G. Blaine, of the Kennebec Journal, and after Mr. Blaine became editor of the Portland Advertiser, was editor, 1858-69. He was chairman of the Republican state committee, 1855-60; a delegate-at-large to the Republican national conventions of 1860 and 1876, casting his vote at the former for William H. Seward for Presidential candidate; was a member of the state legislature, 1865-68; and a state senator, 1868-70. In 1870 he was appointed by President Grant U.S. minister to Uruguay and Paraguay, resigning in 1873; by President Hayes U.S. minister to Sweden and Norway, serving, 1877-83; and by President Harrison U.S. minister to Hawaiian Islands, serving, 1889-93. In

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connection with Prof., W. B. Oleson of Honolulu, Picturesque Hawaii (posthumous, 1897). He died in Augusta, Maine, Feb. 7, 1895.

STEVENS, Lillian M. N., reformer, was born in Dover, Maine, March, 1, 1844; daughter of Nathaniel and Nancy (Parsons) Ames; granddaughter of Joshua and Sophia Ames, and of Joseph and Sarah Parsons. She attended Foxcroft academy, 1856; taught school, 1860-65, and was married, Oct. 15, 1865, to Michael, son of Tristram and Nancy (Chapman) Stevens, a merchant of Portland, Maine. She was influential in organizing the Maine W.C.T.U. in 1874, serving as its treasurer, 1874-77, and as its president from the latter date; was assistant recording secretary of the National W.C.T.U., 1880-92; recording secretary, 1893; vice-president, 189498; elected president in the latter year, upon the death of Frances E. Willard (q.v.), and annually re-elected, visiting England, in her official capacity, 1897 and 1900-1903. She was the Maine representative in the National Conference of Charities and Correction, 1890-1903; vice-president at large of the World's W.C.T.U. in 1900; one of the founders of the Maine Industrial School for Girls; a trustee of the school, and a manager of the Maine contribution to the World's Columbian exposition, 1892-93. She was residing in Portland, Maine, in 1903.

STEVENS, Robert Livingston, engineer, was born in New Hoboken, N.J., Oct. 18, 1787; son of John and Rachel Stevens. He was educated chiefly by private tutors and in the laboratory of his father, where he developed remarkable engineering skill at an early age. He was placed in charge of the Phoenix in the first sea voyage made by a steamboat, and he safely carried the vessel, built only for river navigation, from Hoboken, N.J., to Philadelphia, Pa., in June, 1808. He built the steamboat Philadelphia in 1815 with a speed of eight miles an hour, the fastest steamboat then in existence, and in 1832 his North America developed a speed of fifteen miles an hour. He was the leading constructor of steamboats in the United States, 1815-40, and to him are due the inventions of the camboard cut-off; the first use of steam expansively for navigation, 1818; the percussion shell adopted by the government in 1812; the modern ferry boat and ferry

Rob. L. Stevers

ship, spring piling and spring fenders, 1821; the walking beam, 1821; the split water-wheel, 1826; the balance valve, 1831; the placing the boiler on the wheel guards over the water; the marine tubular boiler, 1831, and the forced draft for steam vessels. He visited England to witness the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester railway in 1830, and on his return he introduced the Trail, since known as the "Stevens rail," and imported the locomotive "John Bull," manufactured by John Stephenson and first operated on the Camdem and Amboy railroad, of which he was president and chief engineer; his brother, Edwin A. Stevens, being treasurer and general manager. He began the construction of the Stevens battery in 1842, under authority of congress for an iron clad steam vessel to be shot and shell proof, but as the solid shot from improved cannon penetrated four and a half inches of armor plating, he was obliged to increase the thickness of the armor and the tonnage of his vessel. The constantly increasing efficiency of projectiles completely upset the improved plans of construction and the battery was never accepted, although it served as a model for all other armor-plated vessels, being the first iron-clad ever projected. It had twin screw engines and the boilers were in position, but steam was never raised. In 1852 Mr. Stevens built the sloop yacht Maria, and on a trial race defeated the America before that sloop sailed the race in the Solent and brought home the cup. In 1860 the Maria, then schooner rigged, was exhibited to the Prince of Wales and completely sailed around the fast U.S. revenue cutter Harriet Lane on board of which the English prince was a guest. The Maria was lost at sea in 1869. Commodore Stevens died in Hoboken, N.J., April 20, 1856.

STEVENS, Samuel, Jr., governor of Maryland, was born in Talbot county, Md., in 1778; son of Samuel Stevens, and a descendant of the family that settled, in 1679, at "Stevens' plains," "Stevens' lott" and "Stevens." He was liberally educated, and was married, June 2, 1804, to Eliza May of Chester county, Pa. He was governor of Maryland, 1822-25, and while in office was influential in establishing the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal company, and had the honor of welcoming Lafayette to Annapolis, on his return to the United States in 1824. He died near Trappe, Md., in 1860.

STEVENS, Thaddeus, representative, was born in Danville, Vt., April 4, 1793; son of Joshua (a shoemaker) and Sallie Stevens, who removed from Methuen, Mass., about 1786, and settled in Danville. His father died while Thaddeus was a boy, leaving his family in extreme poverty. Thaddeus was sickly and unfitted for work, so his mother, notwithstanding her poverty, sent


him to Peacham academy and the University of Vermont, and he was graduated from Dartmouth college in 1814. He removed to Pennsylvania, studied law, supporting himself in the meanwhile by teaching in an academy in York, and practised in Gettysburg. He attained high rank as a lawyer, and supported the Anti-Masonic party in 1829. He was a representative in the Pennsylvania legislature, 1833-35 and 1837-38; and a member of the state constitutional convention of 1838, but refused to affix his name to the proposed constitution, as it was constructed on partisan lines. He removed to Lancaster in 1842, and practised law there, 1842-49. He was a Whig representative in the 31st and 32d congresses, 1849-53; and opposed the compromise measures advocated by Henry Clay in 1850. He practised law in Lancaster, 1853-55, and was a representative in the 36th, 37th, 38th, 39th and 40th congresses, 1859-68. He was one of the foremost advocates of emancipation; and, as chairman of the committee of ways and means, on July 7, 1861, obtained the passage of a bill authorizing the secretary of the treasury to borrow $250,000,000; another to appropriate $160,000 for the army, and a naval appropriation of $30,000,000. He also advocated the issue of legal tender paper currency, and in spite of a strenuous opposition on the part of the Democratic members, he saw the bill through the house and senate. On Feb. 22, 1868, he proposed that "Andrew Johnson, President of the United States, be impeached of high crimes and misdemeanors in office." The resolution of impeachment was passed, Feb. 22, 1868, and he was made chairman of the committee of impeachment. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred on him by Jefferson college, Pa., in 1849, and by the University of Vermont in 1867. He died in Washington, D.C., and was buried in the humble cemetery at Lancaster. His epitaph, prepared by himself, reads: "I repose in this quiet and secluded spot, not from any natural preference for solitude, but finding other cemeteries limited as to race by charter rules, I have chosen this, that I might illustrate in my death the principle which I advocated through a long life, Equality of man before his Creator." He died in Washington, D.C., Aug. 11, 1868.

STEVENS, Thomas Holdup, naval officer, was born in Middletown, Conn., May 27, 1819; son of Master-Commandant Thomas Holdup Stevens, U.S.N. He was warranted midshipman, Dec. 14, 1836; advanced to passed midshipman, July 1, 1842, and was commissioned lieutenant, May 10, 1849. He served in the geological coast survey, 1852-55, and in 1861 commanded the Ottawa in Admiral du Pont's South Atlantic squadron. With a division of gun-boats, he engaged Commodore Tatnall before Port Royal, Nov. 4, 1861,

and forced him to find protection under the guns of the fort. He served in the battle of Port Royal ferry, June, 1862, the engagement in Savannah, January, 1862, and the taking of Fort Clinch, March 3, 1862, later occupying several towns on St. John's river. He was transferred to the command of the Maratanza, May, 1862, and, operating on the James, took part in McClellan's Peninsular campaign. He was pro

moted commander, July 16, 1862, and with the Monitor, which had fought the Merrimac in Hampton Roads, he protected McClellan's rear during his retreat from the Peninsula. He joined Wilkes's flying squadron, and did effective blockade service. In 1863, he participated in the attacks on Charleston, leading the boat attack on Fort Sumter, Sept. 10, 1863, and later commanded the Oneida in the Western Gulf squadron. During Farragut's entrance in Mobile Bay he commanded the Winnebago. He was promoted captain, July 26, 1866; commodore, Nov. 20, 1872; rear-admiral,. Oct. 27, 1879, and was retired, May 27, 1881. His son, Thomas Hol



dup Stevens, became commander in the U.S.N. He is the author of the article Boat Attack on Fort Sumter in "Battle and Leaders of the Civil War." He died in Rockville, Md., May 15, 1896.

STEVENS, Walter Husted, engineer, was born in Penn Yan, N. Y., Aug. 24, 1827. He was graduated at the U.S. Military academy, July 1, 1848; was assigned to the corps of engineers; was commissioned 2d lieutenant, May 28, 1853, and 1st lieutenant, July 1, 1855. He was engaged in work at Galveston, Texas, at the time of Twiggs's surrender, and because of his conduct at that time was dismissed from the U.S. army, May 2, 1861. He immediately joined the Confederate army, and was appointed chief engineer to General Beauregard, then operating in Virginia. He was commissioned colonel, made chief engineer of the Army of Northern Virginia, and in 1862 was given charge of the fortifications of Richmond, and was later promoted brigadiergeneral. After the war, he became an engineer on the Mexican railway, and was its superintendent at the time of his death in Vera Cruz, Mexico, Nov. 12, 1867.

STEVENS, Walter Le Conte, educator and author, was born in Gordon county, Ga., June 17, 1847; son of Dr. Josiah Peter and Ann (Le


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