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-of which many are still to be seen, many others have disappeared in recent times—recorded his name, which appears more frequently on the walls and towers than that of any other Emperor.' The restoration of the seaward defences facing Chrysopolis may specially be noticed : at the ancient gate of St. Barbara (Top-kapussi, close to Seraglio Point), and on the walls and towers to the south, on either side of the gate of unknown name (now Deïrmen-kapussi) near the Kynegion.' Just north of this entrance is a long inscription, in six iambic trimeters, praying that the wall which Theophilus“ raised on new foundations" may stand fast and unshaken for ever. It may possibly be a general dedication of all his new fortifications. But the work was not quite completed when Theophilus died. South of the Kynegion and close to the Mangana, a portion of the circuit remained in disrepair, and it was reserved for Bardas, the able minister of Michael III., to restore it some twenty years later.

$ 3. Iconoclasm It was not perhaps in the nature of Theophilus to adopt the passive attitudo of his father in the matter of imageworship, or to refrain from making a resolute attempt to terminate the schisin which divided the Church. But he appears for some years (perhaps till A.D. 834) to have continued the tolerant policy of Michael, and there may be some reason for believing, as many believe, that the influence of his friend John the Grammarian, who became Patriarch in A.D. 832, was chiefly responsible for his resolution to suppress icons. He did


I Gen. ib. notes the inscriptions as το [βλ]ηθέν εις γην τείχος εξηγερκότος a featuro.

[τανύν ακάμπτως Μιχαήλ ο δεσπότης • Van Millingen, 181. Ilanimer, διά Βάρ[δα του των σχολών δομεστίκου Constantinopolis i. Appendix, given ήγειρε τορ[π]νον ωράρισμα τη πόλεις copies of inscrisitions which have dis. appeared.

Some of these supplements can hardly Van Millingen, 250, 183.

be right. In 1. 1 I would read + Van Millingen's conjecture. The

θ[ρόνου]; in 2 και μηδενός, for there inscription is in one linc 60 feet long. is an upright stroke before derds ; in The last versc should be restored 4 åráuitws is inappropriate, perhaps άσειστον ακλόνητον έστηριγμένον).

νύν ακλoνήτως. The slabs bearing the

legend were in the wall close to Injili 5 I infer this from the Bardas in.

Kiosk, once the Church of St. Sariour scription, which, with the restorations

(ib. 253 s99.). of Moriltmann and van Millingen (op. 6 Cont. Th. 121, see Vasil'ev, Viz. i cit. 185-186), run as follows:

Ar., Pril. 147 899. Before his eleraπολλ]ών κραταιώς δεσποσάντων του tion he held the office of Synkellos. σ[άλου]

For his work under Leo V. see above, αλλ' ουδενός προς ύψος και ευκοσμίαν po 60 sq.


not sumnion a new council, and perhaps he did not issue any new.cdict; but he endeavoured, by severe measures, to ensure the permanence of the iconoclastic principles which had been established under Leo the Armenian. The lack of contemporary evidence renders it difficult to determine the scope and extent of the persecution of Theophilus; but a careful examination of such evidence as exists shows that modern historians have exaggerated its compass, if not its severity. So far as we can see, his repressive measures were twofold. He endeavoured to check the propagation of the false cloctrine by punishing some leading monks who were actively preaching it; and he sought to abolish religious pictures from Constantinople by forbidding them to be painted at all.”

of the cases of corporal chastisement inflicted on ecclesiastics for pertinacity in the cause of image-worship, the most famous and genuine is the punishment of the two l'alestinian brothers, Theolor and Theophanes," who had alroudly endure persecution unler Ico l'. On Lao's death they returned to Constantinople and did their utmost in the cause of pictures, Theodore by his books and Theophanes by his hymns. But Michael II. treated them like other leaders of the cause; he did not permit them to remain in the city:* Under Theophilus they were inprisoned and scourged, then exiled to Aphusia, one of the 1 The contemporary,

chronicler in his accomut of the affair of Theodore George gives no facts, but inelulges and Theophanes, for which we have a in rapid abuse. Simeon relates the first-hand source in Theodore's own treatment of the brothers Theodore letter, Simeon made use of this and Theophanes, lvut otherwise only source lionestly; in Cont. Th, there says that Theophilus pulled down are marked discrepancies.) Various pictures, anıl banished and tormenteil tortures and cruclties are ascribed in monks (lad. Gcorg. 791). Genesios general terms to Th. in dcta 42 (74-75) is amazingly loricf: the Jari, amor. (r 24, & document Emperor disturbed the sea of piety; written not very long after his death). (1) he imprisoned Michael, synkellos ? This seems to be a genuine tradi. of Jerusalem, with many monks; (2) tion, preserved in Cont. Th. (Vit. branded Theodore and Theopiltanes ; Theoph.) cc. 10 and 13. See below. (3) was assisted by Jolin the Patriarch. is for the following account the The lurid description of the perseci. source is the Vita Thcodori Grupli tion, which has generally been a lopted, (sce Bibliograpılıy). See also Vit. is supplied by the biographer of Mich. Sync., and Vailhé, Saint Michel Theophilus, Cont. Th. c. 10 $99., slio le Syncelle. begins by stating that Th. sought Op. cit. 201, where it is said that 10 outilo his predecessors as a per: Jolın (afterwards Patriarch) shut secutor. The whole account is too them up in prison, and having argued rlietorical to be taken for solver history, with them unsuccessfully, exiled them. anil it is in marked contrast with This is probably untrue. They lived that of Genesios, who was not disposed in tlic nionastery of. Sosthenics (which to spare the iconoclasts. (We can, survives in the name Stenia), on the indeed, prove the writer's inaccuracy European bank of the Bosphorus.

Proconnesian islands.' Theophilus was anxious to win them over; the severe treatment which he dealt out to themi proves the influence they exerted; they had, in fact, succeeded Theodore of Studion as the principal champions of icons. The Emperor hoped that after the experience of a protracted exile and imprisonment they would yield to his threats; their opposition seemed to him perhaps the chief obstacle to the unity of the Church. So they were brought to Constantinople and the story of their maltreatment may be told in their own words.


The Imperial officer arrived at the isle of Aphusia and hurried us away to the City, affirming that he knew not the purpose of the command, only that lie had been sent to execute it very uryently. We arriveel in the City on the 8th of July. Our conductor reported our arrival to the Emperor, inil was orilereol to shut us up in the Praetorian prison. Six days later on the 14th) we were summoned to the Imperial presence. l'onductail ly the Profeet of the City, we reached the door of the Chrysutriklinos, and saw the Emperor with a terribly stern countenance and a number of people standing round. It wils the tenth hour. The l'refect retired and left us in the presence of the Emperor, who, when we had made obeisance, roughly ordered us to approach. He asked us “Where were ye born ?" We replied, “ In the land of Moab.” “Why came ye here?We did not answer, and he ordered our faces to be beaten. After many sore blows, we became dizzy and fell, and if I bad not grasped the tunic of the nian who smote me, I should have fallen on the Emperor's footstool. Holding by his dress I stood unmoveil till the Emperor said “ Enough” and repeated his former question. When we still said nothing he addressed the Prefect (who appears to have returneil] in great writh, "Take them and engrave on their faces these verses, anii then hand them over to two Saracens to conduct them to their own country." One stoull near-his name was Christodulos—who held in his hand the iambic verses which he had composed. · The Eniperor baile him read them aloud, adding, “If they are not good, never mind." He saiil this because he knew how they would be ridiculed by us, since we are experts in poetical matters. The man who read them saiul, “Sir, these fellows are not worthy that the verses should be better.”

They were then taken back to the Praetorium, and then once more to the Palace,' where they received a flogging in the

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| See above, p. 41.

: In their letter to Jolin of Cyzicus, quotel in op. cit. 204 $99.

: Three o'clock in the afternoon.

• Before they were admitted to the presence they were kept in the Therniastra. The writers on the Palace (Lilarte, Bielinov, Ebersolt,

etc.) arc, I believe, wrong in their conception of the Thermastra. The evidence points, as I have tried to show, to its being north of the Lausiakos and forming the ground floor of the Eillikon. The scene of the scourging is represented in a niiniature in the dailrid MS. of of the acts of persecution ascribed to Theophilus, this is the most authentic. Now there is a circumstance about it which may help to explain the Emperor's exceptional severity, the fact that the two monks who had so vehemently agitated against his policy were strangers from Palestine. We can easily understand that the Emperor's resentment would have been especially aroused against interlopers who had come from abroad to make trouble in his dominion. And there are two other facts which are probably not unconnected. The oriental Patriarchs (of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem) had addressed to Theophilus a "synodic letter” in favour of the worship of images, a manifesto which must have been highly displeasing to him and to the Patriarch John. Further, it is recorded, and there is no reason to doubt, that Theophilus Skylitzes, reproduced in Beylié, graphy) was supposed by Combelis Lllubitulion byzantiiw, p. 122. The to be a joint composition of the place of the priuishment was thic nid. three easterni l'atriarchis. This is garden, ueroxýtov, of the Lausiakos, very unlikely, but the author may doubtless the same as the MedOKÝRLOV have belonged to one of the castern near the east end of the Justinianos, dioceses (op. c. 30), though it would mentioned in Constantine, Cer. 585. be rash to argue (with Schwarzlose, | Dec. 27, 841. Vit. Thcodori, 210;

Imperial presence. But another chance was granted to them. Four days later they were informed by the Prefect that if they would communicate once with the iconoclasts it would be suflicient to save them from punishment; "I," he sid, “will accompany you to the Church.” When they refused, they were laid upon benches, and their faces were tattooed—it was a long process—with the vituperative verses. Some admiration is due to the dexterity and delicacy of touch of the tormentor who succeeded in branding twelve iambic lines on a human face. The other part of the sentence was not carried out. The brethren were not reconducted to their own country; they were imprisoned at Apamea in Bithynia, where Thcodore died.' Theophanes, the hymn writer, survived till the next reign and became bishop of Nicaea.

111), from a certain tone of authority,

that he was a Patriarch. lle sketches cp. Simicon, Aild. Gcorg. 808 ; Mcnwlog. Basil. Jligne, 117, 229.

the history of the controversy on

An anecdote in Cont. Th. (160), makes him survive

images from the beginning to the Theophilus (so Vit. Hich. Sync. 252 ;

death of Michael II. (committing some Varr. de Thcoph. absol. 32), and in

chronological blunders pointed out by

Schwarzlose), and exhorts Theophilus the same passage Theophanes is falsely described as bishop of Smyrna.

to follow the example of pious

Emperors like Constantine, Thco. ? The Epislola synodica (Irientalium dosius, Marcian, and not that of thic arl Theophilun imp. (sce Biblio. godless iconoclasts.

imprisoned Michael, the synkollos of the Patriarch of Jerusalem," who hnd formerly been persecuted by Lco V. We muy fuirly suspect thut the offence of the Palestininn brethren was seriously negravated in his eyes by the fuct that they were Palestinian. This suspicion is borne out by the tenor of the bad verses which were inscribed on their faces.?

There was another case of cruelty which seems to be well attested. Euthymios, bishop of Sardis, who had been prominent among the orthodox opponents of Leo V., died in consequence of a severe scourying. But the greater number of imaye-worshippers, whose sufferings are specially recorded, suffered no more than Danishment, and the Proconnesian island Aphusia is said to have been selected is the place of confinement for many notable champions of pictures.

The very different treatinent which Theophilus accorded to Methodius is significant. In order to bend him to his will, he tried harsh measures, whipped him and shut him up



i Gen. 74; Vit. Mich. Sync. 238, where he and his companion Job are said to have been imprisoneel in a cell in the Practorium in A.1), 831. Vaillie, Suint Michel lc Syncclle, 618.

3 Thic sense of the verses (which are
preserved in l'il. Theod. Gr., 206 ;
Mild. Geory. 807 ; Cont. Th. 105;.
Psewo-Simeon, 641; Icta Duridis,
239 ; l'il. Mich. Sync. 243; Zonaras,
iii. 366, ctc. --material for a critical
text) miey be rendered thus:
In that fair town whose sacred streets were

Once by th“ pure feet of the Word of Gol-
The city all moli's hearts desire to see:-
These ovil vessels of perversity
And superstition, working foul leeds there,
Wore driven forth to this our City, where
Perxisting in their wicked lawless ways
They alte condemned and, brauded.on the

As scoundrels, hunted to their native

place. 3 There is a difficulty about Euthymios. In the acta Davidis, 237, his death is connected with the persecu. tion in the reign of Theophilus. In Cont. Th. 48 it is placed in the reign of Michael II., who is made responsible, while the execution is ascribed to Theophilus. This notice is derived from Genesios (or from a common source), who says, at the end of Miellucl II.'s reign Ευθύμιον .. θεόφιλος

βουνεύρους χαλεπώς έθανάτωσεν. Here the act is ascribed entirely to Theophilus, so that we niight assume a misdating. It seems quite incon. sistent with the policy of Blichael. The author of the Acta Daridis, ib., expressly states that the punishment of Methodius was the only hardship inflicted by Michael. If he had pero mitted the scourging of Eutligniios, would it have licen passed over by (ieoryc the Monk? Paryoire, Saint Euthyme, in Echos el'Oricui, v. 157 899. (1901-2), however, thinks the date or the death of Euthymios was Dec. 26, 824.

+Simcon the Stylite of Lesbos (see above, pl. 75), who in the reign of Michael' il. lived in the suburb ot l'égae, on the north side of the Golden Horn, was banished to Aplusia (aleta Daridis, 239), whither Theodore and Theophanes had at first been sent. Other exiles to this island were Makarios, abbot of Pelekété (who was first flogged and imprisoned, according to Vit. Macarii, 158); Hilarion, abbot of the convent of Dalmatos (A.S., June 6, t. i. 759, where he is said to have received 117 stripes); and John, abbot of the Katharoi (H.S., April 27, t. iii. 496). All these men had suf. fered persecution under Leo V.; see above, Chap. II. § 3 al fin.

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