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the Lombard state were terminated by a treaty of partition. It was divided into two independent States, the Principality of Beneventum, and the Principality of Salerno. The latter included, along with Lucania and the north of Calabria, Capua and the greater part of Lombard Campania. But the Counts of Capua refused to acknowledge the authority of the Prince of Salerno, and thus three independent States arose from the disruption of the old Principality of Beneventum.

The Western Emperors, Lewis the Pious and Lothar, much occupied with other parts of their wide dominions, had hitherto kept aloof from South Italian affairs. But the danger which threatened Rome at the hands of the infidels moved Lothar to an intervention which appeals from Naples for help against .tho Lombards, or from one Lombard power for support against another, or from the Eastern Emperor for common action nguinst the Surncens, lud fuiled to bring about. Towards the end of A.N. 8.10 he decided to send an expedition against tho Moslems. It was led by his son Lewis, who appeared with an army, chietly recruited from Gaul, and was active within the Lombard borders during the following years (A.D. 847-849). At the same time he 'doubtless helped to arrange the agreement between the Lombard rivals. He was bent upon making his authority real, making South Italy a part of his Italian kingdom in the fullest sense, and he was bent upon driving the Saracens out. He expelled them from Beneventum, but this was only the beginning of his task. · The Saracens of Bari, whose leader took the title of Sultan, dominated Apulia, in which he was master of twenty-four fortresses and from which he ravaged the adjacent regions. Bari was strongly fortificed, and Lewis was beaten back from its walls (A.D. 852). For fourteen years he seems to have been able to make no further effort to cope with the invaders. · North Italian affairs, and especially liis strnggle with Pope Nicolas I., claimed his attention, and it was as much as he could do to maintain authority over his Lombard vassals. During this time the Saracens were the terror of the South; but the confederate fleet of Naples and her maritime allies appears to have secured to those cities immunity from attack.'


i In Constantine Thom. 62 the Saracens are said to have possessed

150 strongholes in Italy Iwfore the Christians began to recover the lapul in


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EASTERN ROJAN EMPIRE. A8 agui nst the Saracens; the interests of the Eastern and the Western En pires were bound together, and, when Lewis onco moro set hin self carnestly to the task of recovering Apulin, he invoke the cloperation of Constantinople. How ho succeeded, and how his s.lccess turned out to the profit of his Greck allies, is a story which lics leyond our prosent limits.

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WIEN Nicephorus I. ascended the throne, he was confronted on tho wostorn borilors of his dominion by tho great Western Sinto which with founded ly tho gonius of Charley the Grent. It included the whole cxtent of the mainland of westerni Europe, with the uxception of Spain and the small territories in Itly which still belonged to the lord of Constantinople. It was far larger in area than the Eastern Empire, and to Charles it might well have seemed the business of a few short years to drive the Byzantine power from Venetia, from the southern extremities of Italy, and from Sicily itself. He had ammexed Istria ; he had threatened Croitia; and his power had advanceil in the direction of the Middle Danule. But his Empire, though to himself and his friends it might appear ils i resurrection of the mighty empire of Augustus or Constantine, was not built up by the slow and sure methods which the Roman republic hund employed to extend its sway over the world. Though it was pilluru ly the spiritual influence and prestige of Rome, it was an ill-consolidated fabric which could not be strengthened and preserved suve by it succession of rulers as highly gifted its Charles himself. after his death the disintegration of his Empire began; it had been a menace, it never became a serious danger, to the monarchs of Constantinople.

A treaty had been concluded between Charles and Irene in a.v. 798, by which the Empress recognised the lordship of the King in Istria and Beneventum, while he probably acknowledged her rights in Croatia.' Soon afterwarıls, induced

Aliw years

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perhaps Ivy uvertures from a disloyal party in the island, Charles seems to have formed a design upon Sicily, and in b. 800 it was known at Constantinople that he intended to avtack the island ;' but his unexpected coronation led him to abandon his design.

Unexpected; when the diadem was placed on his head in St. l'eter's on Christmas Day, and he was acclaimed Imperator by the Romans, he was not only taken ly surprise, but even voxedd.? The l'opre, who perforined the coronation, wils inerely in the secret; he consulted to, but he did not initiate, a scheme, which wils far from being obviously conducive to the interests of pontifical policy. It has been shown that the scheme was conceived and carried through ly friends and counsellors of the king, who were enthusiastic admirers of their master as a conqueror and a statesman. In poems and letters, these men-Alcuin, Theodulf, Angilbert, Paulinus, Arno ---Ventilated, as we may say, the Imperial idea, not formulating it in direct phrases, but allusively suggesting it. Thus Angilbert wrote:

Rex Karolus, caput orbix, amor populique decusque,
Europae vencrandus apex, palor optimus, lieros,

Augristis.' It was not enough for the authors of the scheine to assure themselves of the co-operation of l'ope leo, for they were sufficiently versed in the Imperial theory. to know that the constitutional legitimacy of a Roman Emperor depended not on his coronation but on his election. It was essential to observe the constitutional form: the Emperor must be acclaimed by the Roman Senate, and army, and people. There was no Senate in the olal sense, but the term senatus Wils applied to the Roman nobles, and this susliced for the purpose.

There were soldiers and there was a populace. It · The evidence (cp. Harnack, 40) is : • Einlard, l'ilu Kuroli, 28. Ann. 1. F., s.a. 799, an envoy of

3 By Kleinclaus!, L'Empire cara. Michael, the governor of Sicily, visited

linyien, 169-192. On the general Charles and was dismissed with great

aspicct of the event consult Bryce, . honour; Theoph., s.a. 800, Charles

lloly Roman Empire. was crownel και βουληθείς κατά Σικελίαν παρατάξασθαι στόλο μετεβλήθη ; Ακη.

Poclac Latini acri Karolini, oi. r. F., s.a. 311, Leo a spathar, a Sicilian, Dümmler, i. 368, vv. 92-94. С. fled to Charles at Rome in 801, and re- Alcuin, Ep. 174 (Ep. kir. (cv. Po mained with him till 811, when peace

288-289). was concluiled between the Empires. 5 See Kleinclausz, 196.


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Was ncccsary to prepare the Romans for an exercise of sovran authority, which had long ceased to be familiar to them. When they assembled in the Church of St. Peter to celebrate mass on Christmas Day, there was perhaps no one in the great concourse except Charles himself, who was unaware of the iinminent event. When the Pope placed the crown on the head of the King, who was kneeling in prayer, the congregation -- the Senate, and the Roman people-acclaimed him three times, “Life and victory to Charles, Augustus, crowned by God, grent and princilio Emprror of the Romany." The l'ope, who had simply fulfilled the same function is a l'atriurch of Constantinople in it similar cuse, fell down and ailored himi as a subject.

If the first emotions of the new Emperor, who had thus been taken unawares, were mixed with anxiety and disquiet, one of the chief causes of liis misgiving was probably the · ambiguous attitude which he now occupied in regard to Constantinople. The legitimacy of the Emperors who ruled in the East as the successors of Constantine had never been questioned in Europe; it had been acknowledged by Charles himself; it was above all evil or dispute. The election of Charlesit mattered not whether at Rome or elsewherewithout the consent of the sovran at Constantinople was formally a usurpation. It was all very well to disguise or justify the usurpation by the theory that the Imperial throne had been vacint since the deposition of Constantine VI., because it woman was incapable of exercising the Imperial sovranty;" lut such an argument would not be accepted in Byzantium, and would perhaps carry little weight anywhere. Nor would Irene reign for ever; she would be succeeded by a man, whose Imperial title would be indisputable. Charles silw that, elected though he was by the Romans and crowned by the l'ope, his own title as Roman Imperator and Augustus could only become perfectly valid if he were recognised as a colleague by the autocrat of Constantinople. There are many

empires” in the world to-llay; but in those days men could only conceive of one, the Roman imperium, which was single

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"Ann. r. F., 3. n. 801, l. 112.

? dan. Laureshamevasi's (11.G.II., Scr. i.), ”

38: “quia iim tunc

cessabat dle parte Giraccorum nomen imperatoris et femineum imperium ápruid se abebant."

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