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unstable and wavering. The Slavonic župans acknowledged no lord in the reign of Michael III. or perhaps at an earlier date. The Ronan communities of the coast, which were

' under their own magistrates, subject to an Iinperial governor or archon, iire said to have asserted their autonomy in the time of Michael II.--and this may well have happened when he was engaged in the struggle with Thomas." But the control of Constantinople was soon reimposed, and Dalmatia continued to be a province or Theme, under an archon, though the cities enjoyed, as before, a measure of self-government, which resembled that of Cherson.

The settlement of another question in the reign of Michael II. tended to pacify the relations between the two empires. The Istrian

Istrian bishops who were subjects of the Western Emperor had been perunitted by the l'ence of A.1). 812 to remain under the l'atriarch of Grado, who was a subject of the Eastern Einperor. This was an awkward arrangement, which probably would not have been allowed to continue if the l'atriarch Fortunatus had not proved himself a good frienıl of the Franks. But it was satisfactory to both Emperors to transfer the Istrian churches from the See of Grado to that of Aquileia, so that the ecclesiastical jurisdictions were coincident with the boundaries between the two realıns.

This settlement was effected in A.1). 827 by il synod held at Jantua."

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Dalmatian

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' Corni. T).(l'ila Basilii), 288; Cou. when that Icader raised the Croatians stimine,

Dr 'aulm. imp. 128. Note of Pannonia in rebellion against the that in u he former passage only the Franks; and when Levis summonial revolt of tlie. Slavs is mentioned, while liim to answer the charge, lie tlel to plie litt eos tlie emphasis is on the Zara and thence to Constantinople

provincials, who are said (1.1). 8:21). lle accompanied Michael's to have

Ure tome autonomnoles in the combassy to lewis in 824, and was reign of lichael II. See next note. sent on to the loja, lout lied on the

elaste is accepted by llopor way. See clan. r. F., «. 821 in.) 824; (Siriochin leo licechicher, 119), and More Michael, Ep. ul. Jonid. 419 : Joann. alt (110); zasil is defended by llarnack. Ven. 108

Ilirseli, who (198) argues : Mansi, xiv. 193 81%. CpHarnack, that in leo alin. imp. (and Cont. Th. 07-69. The question was probably one 8!) Michael II. is confounded with of the objects of the embassies which

The puessage in Cont. passed between Michael II. and Lewis with thrassertion of autonomy by the is not really inconsistent in A.1), 827, 8:28. The Ockonomios of

St. Sophia was the lead of the Greek Stars luluse ile reign of Michiel lll.

ambassy, which presented to the

Western Emperor ii Greek text of the • Fortunitüs seems to have been is works of Dionysios the Areopagite. lle was accused of

70, against

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: See ilmore, p. 2:23.

The Frank envoys, who were honour. rendering secret support to Liudewit,

ably received, brought back fronı

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burn intriguer.

The letter which the Einperor, Michael II., addressed to Lewis the Pious has ulready deinanded our attention, in connexion with the iconoclastic controversy. Although his recognition of the Imperial title of Lewis was grudying and ambiguous, Lewis, who consistently pursued the policy of keeping on good terms with Coustantinople, did not take offence.' Under Theophilus the relations between the two great powers continue to be friendly. The situation in the Mediterranean deinanded an active co-operation against the Saracens, who were a cominon enemy; Theophilus pressed for the ilssistance of the Franks; but the Western Empire was distracted by the conflicts between Lewis and his sons.” In the last year of his life, Theophilus proposed it marriage between Lewis, the eldest son of Lothar, and one of his own daughters (perhimps Thecla), and Lothar agreeil. But after the Emperor's death the project was allowed to drop, nor can we say whether Theodoril had any reason to feel resentment that the bridegroom designate never came to claim her daughter. There seems to have ensued a complete cessation of diplomatic intercourse during the reign of Michael III., and it is probable that there inay have been some friction in Italy:' But, ils we have alreadly seen, the struggle between Photius and the l'ope led to an approximation between the Byzantine court and the recreant bridegroom, who was proclaimed Basileus in Constantinople (A.1), 867). During the following years, the co-operation against the Saracens, for wliich Theophilus had hoped, was to be brought about; the Emperor Lewis was to work hand in hand with the generals of Bilsil in southern Italy.

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Constantinople viiluable rolics, which
were placed in the Ciltleirill of
Cimbrai. Ser m. r. K., ... 8:27, 828.
Simsoll, "po. cil. 278.79.

I llc sliowed his goolwill in a small matter which arose in southern Italy, between Nieples and Benevrutum : Erchempiert, e. 10, ind odol. r. 1., 8.1. 826 ; Hirnak, 67.

" Three embassies from Theophilus to the lirillllis ille pecoriled: (1) in A.1). 8:3;3 ; the object is not statal, but we know that the envoys boro gifts for Lothar, which they delivered, and for Lewis, whicle they could not deliver, its he was his son's capitive.

This was the “tragedy" which the envoys witnessed, according to l'it. Hlwor. (21.li.11., Scr. ii.) 19, p. 636 La porssaye which Ilirsch (148) has misunilcrstooil ; cp. Harnack, 69. (2) 1.1). 8:39, chun. Bert., 3.a.

Sce above, p. 273, nid below, p. 418. (3) A.11. 812, sco next note.

: Ann. Bert., s. 842 and 853: “Graeci contra Hludovicum concitantur propter filiam in Cplitani ab eo desponsatan sel ad eius nuptias venire differentem" (i.e. Hlulovicum); Cien. 71, Cont. Th, 133. Also Dandn. lus, Chron. 176.

Hinn. Bert., s. 8:73, loc. cit.

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§ 1. The Bulgarian Kingelom Tue hill-ridge of Shuinla, which stretches from north-west to south-eilst, divides the plain of Abobit from the plain of Preslav, and these two plains are intimately associated with the early period of Bulgarian history. It inust have been soon after the invaders established their dominion over Moesia, froin the Danube to the Balkans, that they transferred their capital and the seat of their princes from it marshy fortress in the Dobrudzha to a more central place. Their choice fell upon Pliska. It is situated north-east of Shumla, in the plain of Aboba, and near the modern village of that jame,

Travellers had long since recognized the site as an ancient settlement, but it was taken for granted that the antiquities which the ground evidently concealed were of Roman origin, and it has only recently been discoverud by excavation that here were the greitl entrenched camp and the royal palace of the early khans of Bulgurii.

The camp or town forined a large irregular quadrilateral, and some idea of its size may be conveyed, if it is said that its greatest length from north to south was four miles, and that its width varied from two miles and a half to about one mile and three-quarters. It was enclosed by a fortification, consisting of a ditch outside a rampart of earth, the crown of which appears to have been surmounted by a wooden fence. Although early destruction and later cultivation have done

I This account of Pliska is based on Constantinople, cited as bubu (see the publication of the excavations of Bibliography). the Russian Archaeological Institute of

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what they could to level and obliterate the work, the lines can be clearly traced, and it has been shown that the town could be entered by eleven gates. Near the centre of the enclosure was an inner stronghold, and within this again was the palace of the Khuns. The stronghold, shinped like a trapeziun, was surrounded by thick walls, which were demolished at an ancient date, and now present the appearance of a rumpart about ten feet high. Four circular bastions protected the four angles, and two double rectangular bastions guarded each of the four gates, one of which pierced each of the four walls. The walls were further strengthened by eight other pentagonal bastions. The main entrance was on the eastern side.

Within this fortress stood a group of buildings, which is undoubtedly to be identified as the palatial residence of the Khans. The principal editice, which may be distinguished as

. the Throne-place, was curiously constructed. A large room in the basement, to which there seems to have been no entrance from without, except perhaps a narrow issue underneath a staircase, points to the fact that the ground-floor was only it substructure for an upper storey. This storey consisteil of a prodomos or entrance-hall on the south side, to which the chief staircase ascended, and a hall of audience. The hall was nearly square, and was divided by rows of columns into three parts, resembling the unve and nisles of il church.

The throne stood in a round repose', in the centre of the northern wall. Not far from this building stood i rectangular temple, which in the days of Krum and Omurtag wils devoted to the heithen vult of the Bulgarians, but was converted, after the aulopition of Christinnity, into a church.

The fortress and the palace, which seem to have been built much about the same time, certainly belong to no later period than the first half of the ninth untury. The architecture of the Throne-palace bears the impress of Byzantine influence, and has a certain resemblance to the Trikonchos of Theophilus, as well as to the Magnaura.' It was doubtless constructed by Greek masons. The columns may have been imported from Constantinople ;: it is recorded that Krum, I It resembled the Triklinos of the

an upper storey and in being entered Magnaura by its throne-apise and the through the prolomos, as the Trikon. row's of columns in the nave"; it chos was entered through the Sigma, resembled the Trikonchos in being to which external stairs ascended.

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when he attacked that «ity, carried off works of art from the suburban buildings.

The title of the rulers of Bulgaria was linnas uregi, “sublime khan,”! but even while they were still heathen, they did not scruple to have theinselves described sometimes in their oflicial monuments as rulers by the will of God.” of the political constitution of the kingdom little can be ascertained. The social fabric of the ruling race was based on the clan system, and the head of euch clan was perhaps known as it Empren. from early ages the monarchy have been lereditary in the clan of Dulu, but in the middle of the ciglith century, Kurnikos, who belonged to another family, iscended the throne, und after his death Bulgarin was distracted for some yeill's ly struggles for the royal power. ' We may probably see in these erents a revolt of the clans against the hereditary principle and an attempt to make the inonarchy elective. There were two ranks of nobility, the boilads and the bayains,' and among the boilads there were sis or perhaps twelve who had it conspicuous position at the court. When a Bulgarian ambassador arrived at Constiintinople, etiquette require that the foreign minister should inake particular inquiry first for “the six

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I kdras úßnon porecording the 10119010 (freeflost in the scripcionsom). wingin Josw'lneol mulinPortorily oftlintood thing Tomasellek) with the Comman • Turk i negli = "high, glorious"; cf. Mar. quart, Siirif;ugo, 193 ; Chron. 10.

Omurting in the Chatilir inscrip tion (1.11.821-822), é'w Deo &pxww.tbolii, 545 ; 12 Muamir, o éx 0. &., il. 2:30 1:1.1.11, 8091). Thor line of the title lry Omrtig lingorosos Ungrenski'm cufl. jertura (ib. 1:7:198) that the frosnani kwerowent conferred it ou Malamir Decalise Christianity b. spread in Bulgaria in liis riigni. Marquart's view is (Chron. 11-12) that the title was lucant as a translation of the Turkish Tünyridii bolmus quin,

1912). Okloniti, oftler inmily of Kuri. Bor, lw cdomasiboel lle ó cotitav (18064); Ökoormees oln ó kutavós (whicho Ř PORIIN 10 km 1181 l'l'or for $. ib.); 1911 illilll. other inscription Co. i... 1:2) ili honour of sunne one geveas Ep... ápns, I would supply it the boogimning Corravjos. As ilir title: Zhupan Wils 1140'03 liy South Slavonic peoples for the booned of a trile, it is it rosolubile conjur2011". thunt it cloriguintool in tribal lirince Among the Bulgarians, See Uxquelski, il. 199. The world is slijo quoscil to occur in the form goanav in the early inscription of Mirosili in Hungary, which is believed to relate to the Ciepiels (ib.).

Cfr. c. 1.11. 86017, kai toi's Boládas και βαγαίνους έδωκεν μεγάλα ξένια. C. Uspunski, albub, 201-202. Torlas, in Mansi, sri. 158, lias been riglilly corrected to burlus (Bonilâs, usual torni in the inscriptions)' by Marquart (Chroil, 11). Bagerus or rullendus, in the same fuissage, is doubtless Inggernins (Sagaivos), cp. Uspenski, op. vil. 204. Son las puisseed into Slavonic as inilivrini (the Russian boiler).

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" fearelle created klian." It was the regular style of the Christian princes, ogs Constantine, Cor. 681.

So among the Magyars (exel εκάστη γενεά άρχοντα, Const. 1: «d. imp. 171). Besides the clans of Dulo, Ukil, and grin, mentioned in the Reynal list, we lilin various geveai recorded in ninth crnt. inscripcions, 6.4. Κιριγήρ, Κουβιάρης (

.ολα, 190.

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