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great boilads," and then for the other boilads, " the inner and the outer.' There were thus three grades in this order. We do not know whether the high military offices of tarkan and kaukhan were contined to the boilads. The khan himself had a following or retinue of his own men," which seems to have reseinbled the German comitatus. The kingdom was divided into ten administrative divisions, governed by officers whose title we know only under the equivalent of count."

The Bulgarians used the Greek lingunge for their official documents,' and like the ancient Greeks recorded their public acts liy inscriptions on stones. Mutilated txts of trenties und records of important events have been discovered. They are composed in colloquial und lulting (ireck, not in the diplomatic style of the chancery of Byzantium, and we may guess that they were written by Bulgarians or Slavs who had acquired a smattering of the Greek lungne. Among these monuments are several stones inscribed by the khans in inemory of valued oslicers who died in their service. One of them, for instance, met his cleath in the waters of the Dnieper, another was drowned in the Theiss. This use of the Greek language for

"In Constantine, Cor. 681, we lind Const. Porph. De alm. imp. 158,. ter six greit biliards (tooth cent.), alo-Boyoroup, as Marquart corrects louit ini low wall, imp. 160.1, Wro learn of for å logo;80701p), the Turkish lugarlur, thor at politie of "thu lwolvo Kronel Pro111 which the Russiell bempre bocilioremloy Ilu Servillen (ninth cont.). ( : hicro) is derived ; 1111 formigon (;ovet, Il mollis piliin tline in zemine 111111 Willoin in. Mielini, svi. 138 ; Nee Vaquendi, ib. wimply online biglierindod lower grade, 201). κολοβρος (κουλουβρος) xeis to for we find exactly the same termis, have been a title of rauk, not a fost groal, imor, illie witter ifplice to the or ollice ; Tomaschek cquates it with ihree Bulgarias. There were the Turkish qulayhus, it guide, and Mar. lirent Bulgarians on the Danube, the quart (Chron. il) compares pouvola Spas Imer Bullgarinns on the Seil of Azov, in Theofili

. Sinovatia, i. 8. 2, who nud.the. Oltres Bullgarinus on the explain it as mágos or seper's. Volan. Ser brow, 1.110.27.

Operatol d'Opwtrol, frequent in the ? Therapnávos (inscriptions) wis lin). inscripcions. Sio Uspenski's long dise doubtedly it military commander. We

Cuissjoni, il, 20.1 sqq. mect this Turkish title in Menander's lun. Berl., subu. 866 (p". 8:9), “ intra accolint of an embassy of the Turkish decem comitatus." Silistria was the Khan Dizabul to' Justin II. (fr. 20). chief pace of one of the counties : The ambissailor's name wils Tagma, inscription, Simeoni, Izr. kpl. iii. 186, åčiwua ôd autų Tarxáv. See also Coni. κόμης Δρίστρου. Cgo. iulso Theopolig. Τh. 413, καλουτερικάνος (leg. Καλού lactus, llist, murt.,, 126, 201, 213. Teprávos), and Const. Cor. 681, i See Abola, 212. Boulias tapkávos. See Uspenski, op. 5 Sumne mysterious opigraphic frag. rit. 199-200 ; Mariquirt, Chron. 43-44. ments have also been discovered, for the war'xávos see inscriptions, written, partly it least, in Greek letters, bulur, 220, 2:3, and Sinoni (Cont. but not in the Cirock coniglie. They licuril. add. Muralt, -19, oil. Bunn 893), aro very sliglie and little can loc maito άμα κονκάνω. Other vignities were of them. See bubu, č. viii. Bayatoup or 309 otop (inscriptions; also li albuba, 190-191.

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their records is the most striking sign of the influence which was exercised on the Bulgarians by the civilization of Constantinople. We can trace this influence also in their buildings, and we know that they enlisted in their service Cireck engineers, and learned the use of those military engines which the Greeks aud Romans ha invented for besieging towns. Votwithstanding the constant Warfare in which they were engaged against the Empire, they looked to Constantinople much as the ancient Germans looked to Rome. Terve had been create a Caesar by the gratitude of Justinian II., and two of his successors found an honourable refuge in the Imperial city when they were lriven by rivals from their own kingdom. Tserig tled to the court of Leo IV. (A.1). 777), accepted baptism and the title of latrician, and was honoured by the hand of an Imperial princess.' It might be expected that the Bulgarians would have found it convenient to allopt the Roman system of marking chronology by indictions or even to use the Roman era of the Creation of the worlil, and we actually find them employing both these methoils of indicating time in their olliciul records.? But they had also al chronological system of their own. They reckoned time by cycles of sixty lunar years, starting from the year A.D. 659, memorable in their history as that in which they had crossed the Danube and made their first permanent settlement in Moesia. For historical purposes,

? this system involved the sanie disadvantage as that of Indictions, though to a much smaller degree; for instance, when an event was dated by the year shegor alem or 48, it was necessary also to know to what cycle the year referred. But for practical purposes there was no inconvenience, and even in historical recorils little ambiguity would have been caused until the Bulgarian annals had been extended by the passage of time into a larger series. It is possible that the Bulgarian lunar years corresponded to the years of the Hijra, and if so, this would lie it remarkable indication of Mohammadan influence, which there are other reasons for suspecting. We know that in the ninth century there must live licensome Bulgarians who were acquainted with Arabic literature.

Ihru's sister marricid H lirook livsponea Nicolai, $ 103, “libri desertor.

profani quos a Saracenis vox alistulisse 2 Sor al lubri, 2:27 anıl 348.

ac apel vos habere fuorliitw.tin." Cps. as see Bury, Chronul. Cycle.

lircirk, licachichilo, 1:3.1.


Put the Bulgarians had other neighbours and foes besides the Romans, and political interests in other directions than in that of Constantinople. It is recorded that the same prince who crossed the Danube and inaugurated a new period in Bulgarian history, also drove the Avars westwurd,' and the record expresses the important fact that in the seventh century the Bulgarians succeeded to the overlordship which the Avar khans had exercised over Dacia in the reigns of Maurice and Heraclius. This influence extended to the Theiss or beyond. Eastward, their lordship was bounded by the Empire of the Khazars, but it is impossible to define the precise limit of its extent. There can be no doubt that in the seventh and eighth centuries Bulgaria included the countries known in later times as Walachia and Bessarabia, and the authority of the khans may have been recognised even beyond the Dniester. At all events it appears to be certain that in this period Bulgarian triles were in occupation of the coastlands from. that river wellnigh to the Don, and this Bulgarian continuity was not cleft in twain till the ninth century. The more ensterly portion of the people were known as the Inner Bulgarians, and they were probably considered to belong to the Empire of the Khazars. But we cannot decide whether it was at the Dniester or rather at the Dnieper that the authority of the Khazars ended and the claims of the (ireat Bulgarians of Moesia began.

South of the Danube, the kingdom extended to the Timok, which marked the Servian frontier. The Bulgarians lived on terms of unbroken friendship with the Servians, and this may perhaps be explained by the fact that between their territories the Empire still possessed an important stronghold in the city of Sarilica.

For the greater security of their country the Bulgarians reinforced and supplemented the natural defences of mountain

" (Moses of Chorenc), Geography to limit the Bulgarians on their eastern (seventh cint.), cited in Westberg, Bri. frontier, and there is no probability triir, ii. 3312; Marquart, Chron. 88. that the kihazars ever exerted itutlior.

• Sir. 1916ortuis, 3-15. Βουλγαρίαν ity further than the Dniestır, if as εκείθεν του "Ιστρου ποταμού (= Pseudo- far. Simeon, 01:1). There is 110 runson to · Onic proint on the frontier (Con. suppose that when Isperikli settled stantine, De alm. imp. 155) seenis to in the Dolirnezha, hemlineloned Bees. have been Rasit (Novi Bazar, JireXek, araliin. Till the ninth cintury there Geschichte, 180). was no grower built that of the Khazars


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and river by elaborate systems of fortification and entrenchment. Their kingdom, almost girt about by an artificial circumvallation, might be compared to an entreuched camp, and the stages in its territorial explosion are marked by successive ramparts. Beyond the Danube, al ditch and earthen wall connected the l'ruth with the Dniester in northern Bessitrabin, and a similar fence protected the angle between the months of the Sereth, the Danube, and the Pruth. The early settlement of Ispuerikli at Little Preslav, near the mouth of the Danube', was fortified by it l'ampiert across the Dobrudzhin," following the line of older Roman walls of earth and stone, but turned to confront i foe advancing from the south, while the Roman defences had been designed against barbarians descending from the north. When the royal residence was moved to Pliska, it line of fortifications was constructed along the heights of Haemus; and at trench and rampart from the mountains to the Danube marked the western frvutier. When their successes at the expense of the Empire enabled the conquerors to bestride the mountains, a new fence, traversing Thrace, marked the third position in their southward advance. The westward expansion is similarly separated by two more entrenchments connecting the linernus with the Danube, while the right bank of that river was defendeil by it series of fortresses and entrenchiments from Little Preslay to the neighbourhood of Nicopolis.

The main round from Constantinople to the capital of the Bulgarian kings crossed the frontier, cast of the Tundzha, near the conspicuous heights of Meleona," which, still covered with

· The following brief description is Poised on Slikorgil's, in linolne, «. xx. :03 $99. ; cf. it so I'riloch. ii. ijtit;.;6;9. Müstili leseriloe's the “dominion of the Bulgarians its surrounded logo a thorn fence, with opronings like wooden windows, and resembling it wall and canal (Ilarkari, Skremii, 126). Uspenski lolluine, 1:0) tikes “ dominion" to mean the royal anla, and relates the description to Abu!it. This is at siraino i interpretation ; lolit fossibily Masiulis serie shentioned lonch tlie cirium vallalines of the kingga dow and the fortificationis of l'liskit, aud Masiali confil srl then.

: Tlicre wils also all alltrenchment

in Suthern Besisiralija between the l'ruth and Litkie humluk ; ill. 524. See Schuchhardt, itch..rp. Villhei. lungin, ix. 2:0 3j. (1885).

* Schuhhardi, ib.87 $99. ; Tocilesco, fouilles et recherches archéologiques en linemuir, 1900 (Bucharest).

+ Sve blow, p. 361.

atbulm, 561-565, 514, the heights of Bakadzlik. Shkorpiil remarks that they “couled

natural boundary, before the construction of the Erkisiiin.“ It is crtain that lov the middelle of the ciglith century at listest the Bulgarian frontier had moved south of Mol1nt llaemus. The tost brariug on this question is Theoph.


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the remains of Bulgarian fortifications, marked an important station on the frontier, since they coinmanded the road. To the north-west of Meleona, the Bulgarians held Diampolis, which preserves its old name as Jambol, situated on the Tundzha. The direct road to Pliska did not go by Diampolis, but lan northward in a direct course to the fortress of Marcellae, which is the modern Karnobad.' This stronghold possessed a high strategic importance in the early period of Bulgarian history, guarding the southern end of the pass of Vereguva,' which led to the gates of the Bulgarian king. Not fuur to the west of Veregival is the play of Verbits, through which the rond lay from t'lisku to Diampolis. The whole route from Marcellae to Pliska was flanked by a succession of fortresses of earth and stone.

1 $ 2. Krum and Nicephorus I. In the wars cluring the reign of Irene and Constantine VI., the Bulgarians had the upper hand; king Kardam repeatedly routed Roman armies, and in the end the Empress submitted to the humiliation of paying an annual tribute to the love of P'liska. A period of peace ensued, lasting for about ten years (A.D. 797-807). We may surmise that the 197, who relates that krum sought to Korniisos, Jireček in the ninth century roNew with Michael 1. (see below) (op: bobu, 568). See below p. 361. the treaty concluded in the reign Ilmolo, 561, cp. 562. Jireček (alreh.. of Theolosius of Allramyttion and P. Vilth. x. 158) wished to place the patriarchite of Giermanus with Marcellae at kaiabish. His identifica. hormisos; “the ruler of Bulgaria. tion is based on Anna Comnena, i. 244 Tliere is in irror here, ils Terpool was an ii. 71 (eil. Reillirscheid), and the Bulgarian king in the reign of he places Lardeas at karnobad. But Theolosins III., illud Constantine V. Shkorpil finils Lardles at the piss of Wils Emuror in the reign of Kormisos Mirash (565). Both place Coloe (also (7.133.760). If we accepit Theolosius, mentioned by Anna) near Kadirfakli. the treaty was in Ali. 716 ; if we Kadirfakli, kaialasli, in the Marash arcopul formsos, it was a generation delile lic in this order on the southlater. My view is that the treaty on ward road froin the Verbits press to which kirum based his negotiations Jambol. was betwee kormisos in Constantine • The identification of the Kleio oupa 1., but that in the text of that treaty Bepegáßww with the · Rish lass is un. an olelor treaty between Theolosius questionally right. Ch. boba, 564; anil Torvel Wits referred to. The Jireček, lerresstrasse, 149-150. Jireček decision of this question does not, of also identifies Voregava with the mulai course', vlecide thuilate of the Erkesiin, σιδηραι οι Σιδηρά of Greek historians, ls Melona (τους όρους από Μηλεώνων but Shkorpil (albubu, 505) takes Lionpa rñs Openins, ib. ) may have been the

to be the Verbits pass.

I am inclined 19011914: ry many years before its con. 10 agree with Jirečck.

The two st1'101.cioni. Zlatarski rates it in the neighbouring Jasses together rrigan of Tervad, Sikorpil in that of known as the Gyrlurski l'ass (ib. 548).


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