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was possibly before the end of the year (A.D. 814) that he was slain, and succeeded by Omurtay, the son of Krum."
The first important act of the sublime Khan Omurtag" was to conclude a formal treaty of peace with the Roman Empire (A.D. 815-816). It is probable that a truce or preliminary agreement had been arranged immediately after Krun’s death, but when Krum's son ascended the throne negotiations were opened which led to a permanent peace. The contracting parties agreed that the treaty should continue in force for thirty years, with a qualification perhaps that it should be confirmed anew at the expiration of each decennium.” A fortunate chance has prrserved a portion of what appears to be an oflicial abstract of the instrument, inscribed on a marble column and set up in the precincts of his residence at P'liska by order of the Bulgarian king. Provision was made for the interchange and ransomn of captives, and the question of the surrender of deserters, on which the negotiations between Kruin and Michael I. had fallen through, was settled in a manner satisfactory to Omurtay. All the Slavs who had been undoubtedly subject to the Bulgarians in the period before the war, and had deserted to the Empire, were to be : sent back to their various districts. The most important articles concerned the delimitation of the frontier which
'That Omurtag was son of Krum expiration (συνεπλήρουν σχεδόν, Gen. is directly aflirmed ly Thcophıylactus loc. cit.). Jireček dlates the treaty 1.)). (loc. cit.); and would be prolable from 815, Loparcy and Zlatarski 816. I the fact that Omurtag's son Malanıir am inclined to believe that 815-816 calls Krum“niy grandfather "(inscrip. is right (not 814, as I argued op. cit.). tion in Abobr, 233)-the alternative We must not press too far the oxesov being that Omurtag was Krum's son-in- of Gencsios ; and other evidence niakes law.
it likely that the twentieth year of : Thic true form of the name, attested the period determined c. 836, and the by his inscriptions ('Nuorpriáy), is thirtieth c. 816. preserved in Latin sources (Omortag). • This seems to be implied in the Theophylactus (Ilist.xr. mari. 192)calls passage of Genesios. him 'Ouspirayos, the Greek chronicles 6 The inscription of Suleiman-keui hiave Moprdywv or Moutpåyww.
(Aboum, 220 s99.). Uspenski proposed : I have conjectured (Bulgarian to refer it to the beginning of the Treaty of .1.D. 81.4, pp. 286-287) that a reign of Michael II. I have shown fragment of such an agreement may (op. cit.) that it contains a text or be preserved in the inscription of abstract of the Thirty Years' Treaty. Eski.Juma (Aboba, 226).
: The common people (private • Cont. Th. expressly ascribes the soldiers) were to be interchanged, treaty to Omurtag (658 pos airov), man for man. A ransom of so much a Genesios (41 apds autoús) leaves it open. hcad was to be paid for Roman officers, For the further evidence of the in- A special arrangement was made for. scription of Malanir see my article on the relemption of Greeks wlio had the treaty (op. cit.). In 823 the first been found in forts which the comi. decennium of the thirty years was near maniers liail deserted.
divided Thrace between the two sovran's.' The new boundary ran westward from Develtos to Makrolivada, a fortress situated between Hadrianople and Philippopolis, close to the junction of the Hebrus with its tributary the Arzus. At Makrolivada the frontier-line turned northward and proceeded to Mt. Haemus. The Bulgarians, who put their faith in earthworks and circumvallations, proposed to protect the boundary, and give it a visible form, by a rampart and trench. The Imperial government, without whose consent the execution of such a work would have been impossible, agreed to withdraw the garrisons froin the forts in the neighbourhood of the frontier during the construction of the fortification, in order to avoid the possibility of hostilo collisions.
The remains of the Great Fence," which marked the southern boundary of the Bulgarian kingdoin in the ninth and tenth centuries, can be traced across Thrace, and are locally known as the Erkesiia.” Some parts of it are visible to the eye of the inexperienced traveller, while in others the line has disappeared or has to be investigated by the diligent attention of the antiquarian. Its eastern extremity is near the ruins of Develtos,on that inlet of the Black Sea whose horns were guarded by the cities of Anchialus and Apollonia. It can be followed easily in its westward course, past Rusokastro, as far as the river Tundzha, for about forty miles ; beyond that river it is inore difficult to trace," but its western extremity secins to have been discovered at Makrolivada, near the modern village of Trnovo-Seimen. The line roughly
· It is possible that some small district was conceded to the Bulgarians. Michael Syr. 26 states that Leo made peace with them, sur: rendering to them the marsh for which they fought.
Meyeln ooúda, Cedrenus, ii. 372.
orders, by men and women, and so pressing was the work that only onc woman was left at home to take care of nine children. The sime story is told elsewhere among the Sluvn, of the croction of grcat buildings.
+ Colonia Flavia l'ncis Doultonsium, or Deultum, founded by Vespasian, was called in Byzantine timos Δεβελτός. The traces of the "wall" begin at the west end of the lagoon of Mandra. 5 The length of
So called from the Turkislı jerkoscit, a cutting in the carth. The castern part of its course is described by Jireček, Fürstenthum, 505 sq. Sur. viving legends as to the origin of thic structure are inentioned by Jireček: (Arch.-up. Mitth. X. 137) and Shkorpil (Aboba, 542). Jireček heard at Ruso. kastro the tradition that the rampart was sinor (o úvopor) -a boundary (between the dominions of two brothers : Slikorpil); it was wronglat, by a tsar's
the western section from the Tundzha is 64 kils., a little less than the eastern.
* Near the junction of R. Hebrus and R. Arzus, now called Sazly.dere. The Roman station Arzus is doubtless .to be identified with the ruins at Teke. Musachievo, und liere the 'rampart was
corresponds to the modern boundary between Turkey and Bulgaria. The rampart was on the north, the ditch on the south, showing that it was designed as a security against the Einpire; the rampart was probably surmounted, like the wall of Pliska, by timber palisades,' and the Bulgarians maintained a constant watch and ward along their boundary fences.? In the eastern section, near the heights of Meleona, the line of defence was strengthened by a second entrenchment to the south, extending for about half a mile in the forın of a bow, and locally known as the Gipsy Erkesiin, but we do not know the origin or date of this fortification." It would seem that the Bulgarians contented themselves with this fence, for no signs have been discovered of a siinilar construction on the western frontier, between Makrolivada and the mountains.
Sanctity was imparted to the contract by the solemn rites of superstition. Omurtay consented to pledge his faith according to the Christian formalities, while Leo, on his part, showing a religious toleration only worthy of a pagan, did not scruple to conform to the heathen customs of the barbarians. Great was the scandal caused to pious members of the Church, when the Roman Emperor, "peer of the Apostles," poured on the earth a libation of water, swore upon a sword, sacrificed dogs, and performed other unholy: rites." Circater, if possible, was their indignation, when the cut loy the great military road from Cp Theoph. 490, the of Hadrianople to Philippopolis. The ξύλινα οχυρώματα.. Western section was cut by another • Nicolaus, liesprosu,
25. ruall which brancher off from the 3 Albat, 542-543.
Tradition say: military roail at Lefke and lead over that the Tsar's soldiers were called the Balkans to Nicopolis on the away before they had completed the Jantra ; and also liy the road from chief entrenchment, and ordered the Iliwirianople to Kabyle (Sliven), which gipsies to finish it. The gipsies sle. followed the right bank of the flertall the line to the south, and the Tundzha (olboobar
, 5:39-5-40). Shkorpil soldiers when they returned continued thinks that the frontier continued their entrenchment in its previous Westward (no traces of the wall are direction. found beyond Teke. Musachevo) to • Ignatius, l'il. Nic. p. 206. This Constantia (S. Kostenets) in the passage is ignored luy Bulgarian his. nortlern foothills of Rhodope, and torians, though it points to sonic thence northwarıl to the piss of Succi curious and obscure customs. év als (Βουλγαρική κλείσις) lear Iclatinan; (συμβάσεσι) ήν ορών τον βασιλέα Ρωμαίων whence beyond the mountains it fol. εκ κύλικος έδωρ κατά γης επιλείβοντα, lowered the line of the midille entrench. επισάγματα ίππων αιτουργώς αναστρέ. ment of West Bulgaria (from hairedin φοντα, ιμάντων έντρίτων απτόμενον, και to kilor.dair-kale on the Danube). χόρτον εις ύψος αίροντα και διά πάντων Put Constantin, which is mentioneel τούτων εαυτόν επαρώμενον. for the in the inscriptions as on the frontier, sacritice of dogs seo. Cont. T'h, fi 31 : was formlalily is different place.
Jirecek, Geschichte, pi. 132.
heathen envoys were invited to pollute by their touch a copy of the Holy Gospels; and to these impieties carthquakes and plagues, which happened subsequently, were attributed.'
This peace, which the Bulgarians consillered satisfactory for many years to come;" enabled Omurtag to throw his energy into the defence of his western dominions against the great German Empire, which had begun to threaten . his intluence even in regions south of the Danube. The Slavonic peoples were restless under the severe yoke of the sublime Khan, and they were tempted by the proximity of the Franks, whose power had extended into Croatia, to turn to the Emperor Lewis for protection. The Slavs of the river Timok, on the borilers of Servia, who were under Bulgarian lordship, had recently left their abodes and sought a refuge within the dominion of Lewis." Their ambassadors presented themselves at his court in A.1). 818, but nothing came of the embassy, for the Timocians were induced * to throw in their lot with Liudewit, the Croatian župan, who had defied the Franks and was endeavouriny to establish Croatian independence. It seemed for a moment that the Croatian leader might succeed in creating a Slavonic realm corresponding to the old Diocese of Illyricum, and threatening Italy and Bavaria; but the star of Liudewit rose and declined rapidly; he was unable to cope with the superior forces of Lewis, and his flight was soon followed by his death (A.D. 823).' The Franks established their ascendency in Croatia, and soon afterwards Bulgarian ambassadors appeared in Germany and sought an audience of the Emperor (A.1). 824). It was the first time that i Frank monarch had received an embassy from a Bulgarian khan. The ambassadors bore a letter froin Omurtay, who seems to have proposed a pacific regulation of i Gen. 28.
mised that he would fix his sword els ? It was doubtless renewed at the την χαλκήν άλωνα της αυλής αιτώνexpiration of the decennial and cven if it had any value-obviously viceunial periods. Michael Syr. 50 (cp.
refers to the situation before the peace 73) says the Bulgarians sulmitted to (Epist. Synol. ail Theoph. 368). Thcophilus. This, if it means anys
: Ann. r. Fr. 818, p. 149. thing, probably nieans that on the accession of Theophilus the peace was
* 10. 819, p. 150. confirmed. As to hostilo designs of
o 16. p. 161. Leo ngiliust Bulgarin after the treaty, allo. f. 101. The embassy nrrived there is no evidence. The aneciloto at tire beginning of thin your, and ro. thout Siboltios (sem uslov'e', p. 5) poro. turned nt Christmas (pv. 106).
the boundaries between the Gerinan and Bulgarian dominions.' Their empires touched at Singidunum, which was now Croitian town," under its new Slavonic name of Belgrade, the "white city," and the Bulgarian ruler .probably clainned that his lordship extended, northward from Belgrade, as far perhaps as Pest, to the banks of the Danube. The Emperor Lewis cautiously determined to learn more of Bulgaria and -jts king before he committed himself to in answer, and he buesit the ciulusky buck along with an envoy of liin own." They returned to Buvirin at the end of the youth. In the Mewtime un cibil ny strived from it Slavonic propile, whion denomination the German chroniclers disguisel under the hanne Praedenccenti.“ They were also known, or were a branch of a people known, as the Abodrites, and must be carefully distinguished from the northern Abodrites, whose hoines were on the Lower Elbe. This trile, who seem to have lived on the northern bank of the Danube, to the east of Belgrade, suffered, like the Timocians, under the oppressive exactious of the Bulgarians, and, like them, looked to the advance of the Franks as an opportunity for deliverance. Lewis, whom they had approached on previous occasions, received their envoys in audience, and kept the Bulgarians waiting for nearly six months. Finally he received them at Aachen, and dismissed them with an ambiguous letter to their master.
It is clear that Lewis deemed it prenature to commit his policy to a definite regulation of the boundaries of the southcastern mark, or to give any formal acknowledyment to the Bulgarian claims on the confines of Pannonia and Croatia ; but he hesitated to decline definitely the proposals of the
1 Ili. “velut pacis faciendae": 167, " de terminis ac finibus inter Bulgaros ac Francos constituendis.
· Constantine,. De avon. imp. 151, enumerates το Βελόγραδον autong tlie Croatian towns. Cpu. 153,.
s nn. t. Fr. p. 161, "ad cxplo. raudam diligentius insolitae et non. quam prius in Franciam venientis. legationis causilm."
16. 105, “ Abaulritorum qui vulgo l'racdenecenti vocantur et conterniini Bulgaris Daciam Danulojo auliacentem incolunt." It is sapogrosed that Prae.
denecenti is a corruption of a name connected with Branitschero, which lay on the Danube, where the Mlava flows in, and corresponded to the ancient Viminacium. The site is marked by the ruins of Branitschevats and kostolats. See Schafarik, ii. 209; Diimmler, Slaren in Dalm. 376 ; Simi. son, Ludiriy der fr. i. 139.
s In A.11. 818 (oinn. r. Fr. 149) and 8.1). 822 (ib. 159). Cjr. Diimmler, Sürlüsil. Marhon, 28.
6 16. 167. Astronomus, Viln Illuule. rici, c. 39 (11.11.11., Sir. ii.).