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Rome. l'ope Nicolas, hearing of their activity in Moravia, and deeming it imperative to inquire into the matter, had addressed to them an apostolic letter, couched in friendly terms and summouing them to Rome. They had doubtless discovered for themselves that their position would be soon impossible unless they came to terms with the Pope. The accession of Basil and the deposition of Photius changed the situation. A Patriarch who was uncler obligations to the Roman See was now enthroned, and Constantine and Methodius, coming froin Constantinople and bearing as a gift the relics of St. Clement, could be sure of a favourable reception. They found that a new Pope had succeeded to the pontifical chair.' Hadrian II., attended by all the Roman clergy, went forth at the head of the people to welcome the bearers of the inartyt's relics, which, it is superfluous to observe, worked many miracles and cures.
The Pogu seems to have approved generally of the work which Constantine lud inngirutel. Methodius and three of the Moravian disciples were orlained priests;? but Moravia was not urade at bishopric and still remained formally dependent on the See of l'assau. Hadrian seems also to have expressed a qualified approval of the Slavonic books. The opponents of the Greek brethren urged that there were only three sacred tongues, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, appealing to the superscription on the Cross. The Pope is said to have rejected this . " Pilatic” dogma in its extreme form, and to have authorized preaching and the rending of the Scriptures in Slavonic; but ho certainly diel niet, 114 wils afterwards sellegal, license the singing of the mrvice of the Milks in the strange tongu, even though it were also chanted in Latin, nor did he cause the Slavonic liturgy to be recited in the principal churches of Rome.'
At this time, the most learned man at Rome was the librarian Anastasius, who knew Greek, kept himself in contact with the Greek world, and translated into Latin the Chronicle
i Nicolas died A.D. 867, Nov. 13, Hadrian succeeded Dec. 14.
2 l'il. Joth. c. 6. The addition to the Tromslutio («. 9 od jin.) states that both Constantine and Metliodius were consecratcil bisliops, and this is accepted by Snopek, op. cit. 126 879.
Methodius became wishop of l'annonia at a later preriod (l'il. Meth. c. 8 ad fin.).
* See the spurious letter of lladrian in l'il. Noth. c. 8.
• Vil. Const. c. 17.
of Theophanes. He made the acquaintance of Constantine, of whose character and learning he entertained a profound admiration. Writing at a later time to the Western Emperor, Anastasius mentions that Constantine knew by heart the works of Dionysios the Areopagite and recommended them as a powerful weapon for combating heresies. But the days of Constantine the Philosopher were numbered. He fell ill and was tonsured as a tnonk, assurning the name of Cyril. He died on February 14, A.1). 869, and his body was entorubed near the altar in the church which had been newly crected in honour of St. Clement."
The subsequent career of Methodius in Moravia and Pannonia lies outside our subject. He was in an untenable position, and the forces against him were strong. determined to celebrate mass in Slavonic, yet he depended on the goodwill of the Roman Sec. His disciples, soon after their master's death, were compelled to leave the country, ind they found it more promising field of work in Bulgarin, the Innd for which, als wo live neon reson to think, Cyril's literary labours were originally intended. I Ep. ad Car., apud Ginzel, anhang, (liscovered close to tho place where
Anastasius is mentioned in Constantine was buriel, representing l'il. Const. c. 17-one of the details the translation of the saint's rolics which show that the writer (who also into the church, the inscription knew that Constantine's disciples were Airl. occurs (apparently referring to consecrated by bishops formosus and their discovery and restoration by Ciuderic) had some gooul information. Cyril). Rossi clates the frescoes to :: l'il. Const, c. 18 ; Truiesintio, c. 10. the tenth century.
See Bullellino : It was built ly Gaueri«, bishop di archeologin cristiana, i. 9 5494., 186:3 ; of Velletri, who wild interested in St. ii. 1 $17., 1861 ; and G. Wilquert, lors Clement, to whout the Church of pilliroolella wsilieri porimitivi di sin Velletri Wien chudiantes (Aunstisilla, Clemente (1900). C. Instruk, op. Bre, mil livmor irooni), Oliodel tronco*** rile 901.
THE EMPIRE OF THE KHAZARS AND THE PEOPLES
OF THE MORTII
§ 1. The Khazars At the beginning of the ninth century the Eastern Empire had two dependencies, remote and isolated, which lived outside the provincial organization, and were governed by their own inagistrates, Venice and Cherson. We have seen how Venice, in the reign of Theophilus, virtually became independent of Constantinople; under the silmne Emperor, the condition of Cherson was also changed, but in a very different sense-it was incorporated in the provincial system. The chief value of both cities to the Empire was commercial; Venice was an intermediary for Byzantine trade with the West, while Cherson was the great centre for the comincrce of the North. And both cities lay at the gates of other empires, which were both an influence and a menace. If the people of the lagoons had to defend themselves against the Franks, the Chersonites had as good reason to fear the Khazars. ·
In the period with which we are concerned, it is probable that the Khair of the Khazars was of little less importance in the view of the Imperial foreign policy than Charles the Great and his successors. . The marriage of an Emperor to the
. daughter of a Khazar king had signalised in the ciglith century that Byzantium had interests of grave moment in this quarter of the globe, where the Khazurs. had formed a powerful and organized state, exercising control or influence over the bururous peoples which surrounded them.
Their realm extended from the Caucasus northward to the Volya and for up the lower reaches of that river; it included
the basin of the Don, it reached westward to the banks of the Dnieper, and extended into the Tauric Chersonese. In this empire were included peoples of various race-the Inner Bulgarians, the Magyars, the Burdās, and the Goths of the Crimea ; while the Slavonic state of Kiev paid a tribute to the Chagan. The Caucasian range divided the Khazars from Iberia and the dependencies of the Caliphate; towards the Black Sea their neighbours were the Alans and the Abasgi; the Dnieper bounded their realm on the side of Great Bulgaria ; in the north their neighbours were the Bulgarians of the Volga, and in the cast the l'atzinaks. All these folks came within the view of Byzantine diplomacy; some of them were to play an important part in the destinies of the Eastern Empire.
The capital of the ruling people was situated on the Caspian Sea, ilt the mouths of the Volgi, and was generally known as Itil. It was a double town built of wood. The western town was named Saryg-shūr, or Yellow City, in which the Chayan resided during the winter; over against it was the castern town of Chamlich or Khazarān, in which were the quarters of the Mohainmadan and the Scandinavian merchants. Chamlich seems to have lain on the eastern bank of the eastern branch of the river, while Saryg-shir was built on the island and on the western shore of the western mouth, the two portions being connected by a bridge of boats; so that Itil is sometimos described as consisting of three towns. The island was covered with the fields and vineyards and gardens of the Chagan.
Three other important towns or fortresses of the Khazars liiy between Itil and the Caspian gates. Semeniler was situated
. itt the mouth of the Terek stream at Kizliar. It was a place rich in vineyards, with a considerable Mohammadan population,
| The name of the Volga. The thrce towns are incntioned : in the western armı of the delta was called largest of them is the Queen's palace, Uyru (Westberg would read Ulug), the in the smallest the King's palace, becastern Buzan. See Westberg, K. ween (? around) whose walls flows the analizu, ii. 41.
river. See Marquart, Streifzüge, xlii. ? Ibu Rusta and Ibn Fadhlau speak Saryg-shar was called al. Baidha of two towns or parts of the town (tho (“the white ") by older Arabic writers fornier designintes the onstorn as labu (Westberg, op. cit. ii. 14). Westberg Julys). Masudi (Sprenger, 106-107) has shown that the later name of speaks of three parts, and places tho It was Saksin (il, 37 syy., and Bci. King's palace in the island. This trüge, ii. 288 $14.). ayroos with the Letter of Joseph, where 3 Westberg, Kunulizal, ii. 41 811'l.
who lived in wooden houses with convex roofs. The fortress of Belenjer, which lily on the lower course of the Sulek, on the road which leads southward from Kizliar to l'etrovsk," seems to have played .some part in the earlier wars between the Khazars and the Saracens. Further south still was the town of Tarku, on the road to Kaiakend and the Caspian gates.'
The Arabic writers to whom we owe much of our knowledge of Khazaria suggest a picture of agricultural and pastoral prosperity. The Khazars were extensive sheep-farmers;' their towns were surrounded by gardens and vineyards ; they were rich in honey and wax; and had abundance of fish. The richest pastures and most productive lands in their country were known als the Nine Regions, and probably lay in the modern districts of Kulin and Ter. The king and his court wintered in Itil, but in the spring they went forth and encamped in the plains." Accoriling to one report, the Chayan had twenty-live wives, etch the laughter of a king, and sixty concubines eminent for their beauty. Each of them haul at house of her own, il qubba
it. covered with leakwood, surrounded by a Inree pavilion, and each was jealously guarded by a eunuch who kept her from being seen. But at a later period a Chugin boasts of his queen, her maidens, and eunuchs, and we are left to wonder whether polygamy had been renounced or was deliberately concealeil.'
The Chagan himself seems to have taken no direct share in the administration of the state or the conduct of war. His sacred person was almost inaccessible; when he rode abroad, all those who saw him prostrated themselves on the ground itud olid not r'is till he had passed out of siglit. On lois denth, á grent sepulclire Wily built with twenty (umbers, niinpundel
i llose Bloukul and luptrolori de meriloc it : New Mirelemrl, Strong':01.7, xlil. 11. is, muud 1-2. Intnchiri neyn tlint it was governed by a piime who win a low and reliled to the Chingall. This refers to a period after the conversion tu Julaism.
:: Westberg, ib.
3 For the evidence see Marofart, mp. rit. 16.17. lle wrongly indvitities Tirku with Somendor.
Westlers, il.. :: Westlerisap. vil. ii. 1:3.
και τα εννέα κλίματα της Χαζαρίας, Γιοι which was wrivil ή πάσα ζωή και dpiltuvia ons X.; they worn on ilo nice Liwaride the incord of the Alusen (HL'O below). Count. 110 1111 ill. imp. 80..
? (j. Ciurilizi, g'. !00 (tr. 'Barthokl). See also der chuz. Königslırirf, 80.
(p. Ibn Fadılan (Vil. Mem.), 59:2; Marquart, xlii. n. 2. Wlicn the Chagan wished to enbrace one of his consorts, hier almih took hier in in instant to his qubba, waited outsiile, and then reconducted her.
! Luer chriz. Königslirs, 79.