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tion and politics which their virtually exclusive possession of letters procured for them in Western Europe.

The circumstance, however it inay be expluined, that the period from the Saracen invasion in the reign of Heraclius to the beginning of the ninth century is sterile in literary productions, must not be suffered to obscure the fact that the traditions of literary education were not interrupted. There rose no men of eminent secular learning; the Emperors did not encourage it; but Homer did not cease to be read. The ! ninth century witnessed a remarkable revival of learning and philosophy, and it is highly probable that at Constantinople this intellectual movement stimulated general education, improved its standards, and heightened its value in public opinion. It is to be noticed that our oldest Byzantine manuscripts of classical writers date from this century, the age of Photius, who stands out; not only above all liis contemporaries, but above all the Greeks of the Middle Ages, is it scholar of encyclopaedic erudition.

It is, however, in the field of philosophy and science, niore definitely than in that of literature and rhetoric, that we can sprenk of a revival of lenrning at this period. During the roign of Michmel Ill, there were three eminent teachers of philosopliy itt Constantinople--Photius himself, Constuntine who became the apostle of the Slave, and Lco the matliematician. Both Leo and Constantine were official professors, endowed by the State, and the interest taken by the Court in science and learning is perhaps the greatest title of the Amorian dynasty to importance in the history of Byzantine civilisation. Since the age of Theophilus and Bardas, although some generations were not as fruitful as others, there was no interruption, no dark period, in the literary activity of the Greeks, till the final fall of Constantinople.

Theophilus was a man of culture, and is said to have been taught by John, whom he afterwards raised to the patriarchal throne, and who possessed considerable attainments in science and philosophy." His intimacy with the learned Methodius is also a sign of his interest in speculation. He seems to have realized what lund not occurred to his pre

| This dial not cscapo Giblon. "In the ninth century we trace the first

downings of the restoration of Science' (vi. 104).

2 Cunt. Th. 154.

decessors, that it beloved a proud centre of civilisation like Byzantium to assert and maintain pre-eminence in the intellectual as well as in other spheres. Hitherto it had been taken for granted that all the learning of the world was contained within the boundaries of the Enipire, and that the Greeks and Roinans alone possessed the vessel of knowledge. Nobody thought of asking, Have we any great savants among us, or is learning on the decline ? But the strenuous cultivation of scientific studies at Baghdad under the auspices of Harun and Mamun, and the repute which the Caliphs were winning as patrons of learning and literature, awakened a feeling at the Byzantine court that the Greeks must not surrender their pre-eminence in intellectual culture, the more so as it was from the old Greek masters that in many branches of science the Saracens were learning. If the reports of the magnificence of the palaces of Baghdad stimulated Theophilus to the construction of wonderful buildings in a new style at Constantinople, we may believe that Mamun's example

, brought home to him the idea that it was a ruler's duty to foster learning We need not accept the story of the career of Leo, the philosopher and mathematician, as literally exact in all its details, but it probably embodies, in the form of an anecdote, the truth that the influence of suggestion was exercised by the court of Baghdad upon that of Byzantium.

Ico was a cousin of John the latriarch. He had studied grammar and poetry at Constantinople, but it was in the island of Andros that he discovered it learned teacher who made bim proficient in philosophy and mathematics.' Having visited my monastic librarics, for the purpose of consulting and purchasing Iwokx, he returned to Constantinople, where he lived poorly in it chenji lolging, Apporting himself liy teaching. llis pupils were generally HUICCOnsful. One, to whoin he had tauglit geometry, was employed as a secretary ly a stratégos, whom he accompanied in'a campaign in the East. He was taken prisoner and became the slave of a Saracen, who must have been a man of some importance at Baghdad and treated him well. One day his master's conversation turned

I A monument of the cultivation of Ptolemy's Geography, illustrated in science about the time at which Leo the reign of Leo V. (perhaps at t'on. was at youthful student exists in the stantinople) after an older' ms. See l'aticaii Library : & manuscript of Dichl, op. cit. 350.

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on the Caliphi, and he mentioned Mamun's interest in geometry. "I should like," said the Greek youth, “ to hear him and his masters discourse on the subject.” The presence in Baghdad of a Greek slave who professed to understand geometry came to the cars of Mamun, who eagerly summoned him to the Palace. He was confronted with the Saracen geometers. They described squares and triangles; they displayed a most accurate acquaintance with the nomenclature of Euclid; but they showed no comprehension of geometrical reasoning. At their request, he gave them a deinonstration, and they inquired in amazement how many savants of such a quality Constantinople possessed. • Many disciples like myself” was the reply, but not masters." “Is your master still alive ?” they asked.

Yes, but he lives in poverty and obscurity.” Then Mamun wrote a letter to Leo, inviting liim to come to Baghdad, offering him rich rewards, and promising that the Saracens would bow their heads to his learning. The youth, to whom gifts and honours and permission to return to his country were promised if he succeeded in his inission, was dispatched as ilmbassador to Leo. The philosopher discreetly showed the Caliph's letter to Theoktistos, the Logothete of the Course, who communicated the matter to the Emperor. By this means Leo was discovered, and his value was appreciated. Theophilus give him a sillary and established him is a public teacher, at the Church of the Forty Martyrs, between the Augusteon and the Forum of Constantine.?

Mamun is said to have afterwards corresponded with Leo, submitting to him a number of geometrical and astronomical problemy. The solutions which he received rendered the Culipili more illixious than over to welcome the eminent Inntheinticinn at his court, and he wrotu to Theophilus begging him to send Leo to Baghdad for a short time, as an act of friendship, and offering in return eternal peace and 2000 pounds of gold (£86,400). But the Emperor, treating science as if it were a secret to be guarded like the manufacture of Greek fire, an deeming it bad policy to enlighten barbarians, declined. He valued Leo the more, and afterwards arranged his election as archbishop of Thessalonicu (c. A.1). 840).'

i In the Middle St. near the Forum of Constantine (apr. Thcopli. 287, and Putaine, 234). Acc. to Simeon (utilel. (cory. 806), Theophilus established him in the palace of 'Magnaura ; but Cont.

Th. 189 las evidently more precise information. In the following reign, Leo clied teach in the Magnaura ; see below.

The interest of Mamun in science and learning is un undoubted fact. He founded a library and an observatory at Baghdad;' and under him and his successors many mathematical, medical, and philosophical works of the ancient Greeks appeared in Arabic translations. The charge that the Arabic geometers were unable to comprehend the demonstrations of Euclid is the cluinny of a jealous Greek, but making every allowance for the embellishments with which a story-teller would seek to enhance the interest of his tale, we may accept it as evidence for the stimulating influence of Baghdad upon Byzantium and emulation between these two seats of culture. And in this connexion it is not insignificant that two other distinguished luminaries of learning in this age haul relations with the Caliphate. We have seen how Jolu the latriarch and Photius were sent on missions to the East. Constantine

. the Philosopher is said to have been selected to conduct a dispute with learned Mohammadans on the doctrine of the Trinity, which was held by the Caliph's request."

The evidence for this dispute is unconvincing, yet the tradition embodies the truth that there was in the ninth century a lively intellectual interest among the Christians and the Mohammadays in the comparative merits of their doctrines. It is not impossible that there were

cases of proselytisin due not to motives of expediency but to conviction. The controversial interest is strongly marked in the version of the Acts of the Amorian Jartyrs composed by Euodios,

| The date is inferred from the fact ticians (ib. 201). Mohaminiad ibn that he held the ollice for three years Musa (al-Khwarizni), who belongs to (Cont. Th. 192) and must have been this period, wrote treatises on algebra deposed after the Council of Urtholoxy and arithmetic, which, translated into in 843.

Latin, were much used in Europe in ? Brockelmann, Geschichte der arab, the later Middle Ages (216). Tabit Lit. i. 202. Cp. Gibbun, vi. 29 sqq. ilon Kurra (born 836), a distinguished (and recent books mentioned in mathematician, translated into Arabic cditorial note 07). For the sources the 5tii book of the Conic Sections of of Abu-'l-Faraj and D'llerhelut, on Apollonius of l'urye (217). Hunain whom Gilbon relies, cp. M. Stein. ibn Ishak (born 809) translated works schneider,“ Dicarabischen Übersetzun. of l’lato, Aristotle, and Ilippocrates gen aus den Griechischen," in Brihojie (20:5-200). Ellin Crutrullall jur Bibliothck'sursen, l'ita Const. c. 6. See above, p. 39-1. N. lpp. 11, 1:3 (1889).

So le scams to have been well ac. Balabikli, c. 835, who quainted with Islam and to have became a Christian, translated from known the horari. One oftlic Euclid, llerou, and other mathema. . Mohammadan arguments thu


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but the grent monument of the concern which the creed of Islam caused to the Greeks is the Reputation of Mohammad by Nicctus of Byzantium, a contemporary of Photius.' The fanaticism of the two creeds did not exclude mutual respect. We have an interesting instance in the friendship of Photius with an Einir of Crete. The l'atriarch, says one of his pupils, writing to the Emir's son and successor, “knew well that

, though difference in religion is a barrier, yet wisdom, kindness, ind the other qualities which adorn anı diguify human nature attract the affection of those who love fair things; and therefore, notwithstanding the difference of creeds, he loved your father, who was endowed with those qualities.'

When Leo, ils an iconoclast, was deposed froin his see, he resume the profession of teaching, and during the regency of Theodorit there were three eminent masters at Constantinople -Leo, l'hotius, and Constantine. It was to Theoktistos that Constantine owed the official chair of philosophy which he Wis induced to accept; but Ico and Photius belonged to the circle of Bardas, who seems to have had a deeper and sincerer interest in intellectual things than either Theophilus or Theoktistos. To Bardas belongs the credit--and his cnemies freely acknowledge it—of having systematically undertaken the task of establishing a school of learning. In fact, he revived, on new lines and apparently on it smaller scale, the university of Constantinople, which had been instituted by Theolosius II., and allowed to vecny and disappear under the Heraclian ind Isaurian dynasties. Leo was the head of this school of advanced studies, which was known as the School of Magnatura," for rooms in the palace of Magnaura were assigned for the purpose. His pupils Theoclore, Theodegios, and Kometas became the professors of geometry, astronomy, and philology: wonderful illccess of Moslem armis, 3 Cont. Th. 185 ; he liscd often to Cp. Icta 42 mart. Amor. 102. The attend the demonstrations (ib. 192). disputations in l'ila Const. cc. 6 and From the passayc 181.185, one would 11 were probably intended for the intor that the school of Magnaura edification of Bulgarian ecclesiastics. was founded by the influence of

| This treatise is published in Bardas before tlic fall of Theoktistos. Migne, 105. Cp. Krumbacher, He enilowed it richly (ib. (i.B.1.79; an ib. 78 for Bartholomew επαρκών). of Edessil, whose controversial work 4' Ιω. της κατά την Μαγναύραν φιλο(Migne, 101, 1383 849.), of uucertain σόφου σχολής. dilte, shows great knowledge.

5 10. της τας φωνάς εξελληνιζούσης :: Nicolaus Mysticus, Ep. 2 (Migne, γραμματικής. Aretlas seems to have P'.(i. 111. p. 37).

taken down a lecture of Leo on

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