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Ocean. The undertaking was thought to be a gigantic one, and Cyrus Field was hailed on his wonderful feat as a hero of the hour throughout the civilized world. It was owing to his undaunted energy that civilization stands where it does to-day. The laying of cables has become a matter of scientific exactness which no longer makes it an astonishing or expensive feat; but the energy which permitted Field to push his project in the face of disaster and discouragement was a wonder then, and will never be forgotten. The great scientists of the day upheld him in his purpose, but the failure of his first attempt, in 1858, and the refusal of the governments either of the United States or Great Britain to assist the undertaking, would have unnerved any but a man of gigantic will and phenomenal self-reliance.

The story of the laying of the Atlantic cable will make one of the thrilling chapters of modern history. The event is narrated by Mr. Field himself in the last number of the Youth's Companion. His narrative is a mere outline of the great difficulties which beset him, and gives at the same time an interesting glimpse of the very casual manner in which the great idea originated. He had amassed a fortune, had become a gentleman of leisure, but found his leisure irksome. He could not drift away from the action and life that had formerly surrounded him. In this lull he was approached by a gentleman who wished to interest him in the revival of a scheme to carry a line of telegraph to Newfoundland. It included a cable across the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the intention being then to carry messages by steamer from there to England, making a vast saving in time over the regular transAtlantic routes. "The project did not seem to me very formidable," writes Mr. Field. "It was no more difficult to carry a line to St. John's on this side than to some point on the Irish coast. But was this all that could be done? Beside me in the library was a globe, which I began to turn over to study the relative positions of Newfoundland and Ireland. Suddenly the thought flashed upon me, 'Why not carry the line across the Altantic?' That was the first moment that the idea ever entered my mind. It came as a vision of the night, and never left me until, thirteen years after, the dream was fulfilled." The struggle which followed is already a matter of universal knowledge. Difficul


ties were on every side, but stanch friends stood by the scheme in the face of criticism and ridicule. They saw the cable break in mid-Atlantic, and back of all these discouragements they did not know whether, if completed, the cable could be made to carry a message under three thousand miles of the sea. "To get an answer to this question, we appealed to the greatest authorities in both countries. Morse said, 'Yes, it could be done.' So said Faraday; and when I asked the old man, 'How long will it take for the current to pass from shore to shore?' he answered, 'Possibly one second!' Such words of cheer put us in good heart and hope, and yet the only final and absolute test was that of experiment. And a very costly experiment it must be. To make such a cable as we required and lay it at the bottom of the sea would cost six hundred thousand pounds sterling-three millions of dollars! Where was all that money to come from? I went from city to city, addressing chambers of commerce and other financial bodies, in England and the United States. All listened with respect, but such was the general incredulity that men were slow to subscribe. To show my faith by my works, I took one-fourth of the whole capital myself. And so at last, with the help of a few, the necessary sum was got together and the work begun." The enterprise was finished in 1866. When people in America began to receive daily reports in the newspapers of the progress of the war between Prussia and Austria, they realized that a new epoch had opened, a new leaf had been turned in the endless book of destiny.

Prince Bismarck in his retirement would seem to be second only in power to the young emperor of Germany himself. The adulations poured upon him on every occasion, whether it is his birthday or some family celebration, show the attachment in which he is held by the people. At the bottom of all his undertakings, Bismarck retains an intense love for the Fatherland; and while William occupies the throne, it has been ably said that Bismarck is the uncrowned king of Prussia. No tribute to this fact is more unique than the astonishing threat made by the German ruler to persecute him for his temerity in daring to criticise himself, or "der yunge mann," as Bismarck has nicknamed the emperor. When Bismarck was retired from the chancellorship, his reti


cence was construed as a desire to leave politics alone. was, however, charged with a keen disappointment at his removal and a desire to avenge what he considered an insult. He has since been an unsparing critic of the emperor's, and has prophesied through published interviews the most gloomy future for the Fatherland under William's foreign policy. His definite prosecution for uttering these forebodings would add to the interest of the situation, if not to the dignity of empire.

The fire which practically destroyed the town of St. Johns, in Newfoundland, really rendered one-half of the entire inhabitants of the colony homeless, and brings a disastrous end to an unequal struggle on the part of this town to keep up to the alluring promises of its promoters. Its trade has gradually dwindled, while its debt has constantly increased. It possesses great resources in minerals, coal, and timber. "The coal and forests and arable soil," says the Nation, "are all there, and in some future stage of the continent's history may be of immense value, but there is clearly no profit in working them now. Crown lands within easy distance of the city were offered to anybody who would clear them at thirty cents an acre, but in the face of this offer emigration from the colony has grown steadily larger."

The American newspaper is a constant source of discussion and derision. There is some justice in the assertion that the successful newspaper caters to a public demand; and if it prints lies and sensations, it does so because it pays. If we are to believe a writer in the Open Court, however, the readers are moulded by what they read. "If the papers have their own way, this writer says, we shall soon become a

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degenerate race of sycophants and snobs, grovelling before our 'betters,' and retreating backward from their presence as royalty requires all subject inferiors to do. gathering like a national convention makes a little additional excitement by bringing together some celebrated and some notorious men, the newspapers immediately begin to revel in obsequious personal description, for the pleasure of a constituency of snobs; in which matter, perhaps, the papers are not altogether to blame, as they print what is to the taste of readers, and for which their patrons are willing to pay. If this is true, and it is the public instead of the newspapers who

are responsible for those fulsome details, then we shall soon fall, even if we have not already fallen, very low in the scale of personal self-respect. I do assert with confidence that you will not find in any newspaper published in any of the ancient monarchies between London and Teheran such servile adulation of kings as our newspapers offer like incense to our most worthy and most unworthy celebrated men. They gush like a love-sick dime novel over a senator or a chief justice; and when their hero opens his mouth they make him talk with an egotism truly Byronic and 'splendid.' Here is a short specimen: 'Senator Gorman leaned his shapely head upon his hand, and after a long and thoughtful silence replied.' I need not give his reply; I merely wish to direct attention to that 'shapely head' and that 'long and thoughtful silence.' Then the paper drops into the hysterical sublime after this fashion: 'At this moment a messenger entered the room bearing in his hand a sealed letter, which he handed to Senator Gorman. The senator took the letter, broke the seal, and, after reading it with knitted brow, he crushed it between his fingers, donned his hat and coat, and, seizing his cane with an air that shows high breeding, he left the room and walked hurriedly down the stairs and out into the street. Arriving there, he flung himself into a coupé and, giving his orders to the coachman in a low tone, he was driven, some said to the Auditorium and others to the Richelieu. All that theatrical introduction to nothing; and of this, column after column, to the extent of hundreds of acres with which the Chicago papers alone have carpeted the political floor of the Amercian republic-if it is a republic."

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Women have taken possession of many occupations, and are being paid, as a rule, in accordance with the skill, the talent, or the genius required to fill properly the positions they occupy. If men should perform the same work in these positions, they would probably be paid, if not the same rates of wages, very nearly the same rates as those paid to women; and in many cases where compensation is by the piece, the rates are the same, whether men or women perform the work, the earnings being in accordance with the skill and the application of the worker. The statistics with regard to the cotton industry of Massachusetts well illustrate this statement. They show that of the 48, 178 persons employed, 22, 015 are males and 2,163 are females. Of the males, 28.61 per cent, and of the females 49.70 per cent, receive less than five dollars per week; 14.47 per cent of the males and 23.94 per cent of the females receive five dollars and less than six dollars per week. When we reach the ordinary compensation of six dollars but less than seven dollars per week, the proportion receiving this is quite equal, it being 13.41 per cent for the males and 15.97 per cent for the females. The proportions then divide, but the figures indicate that a very large number of males who do work precisely like that performed by females are receiving practically the same wages.

It should be remembered that as men have stepped up into higher occupations, those which have come up as new callings in life, they have received comparatively higher compensation than women in the old occupations. The latter have occupied the positions of bookkeepers, telegraphers, and many of what might be called semi-professional callings; and as women have occupied them, men have entered higher callings-engineering, electrical and mechanical, and other spheres of life that were not known when women first stepped into the industrial field. As women have progressed from entire want of employment to employment which pays a few dollars per week, men, too, have progressed in their employments and occupied entirely new fields not known before. It is not quite true, therefore, to say that in occupations where women do like work with men they are not paid equal wages

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