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for the buglers of the several batteries. "Get on the car and sound the tattoo, and then taps,” he told them. The men climbed upon the top of the car, raised their bugles, and sounded the notes that have so recently aroused the enthusiasm and patriotism of all Americans. The silvery notes rang out loudly and went echoing among the trees and far away to the hills. Then the men listened. Again the tattoo was sounded; and as the men listened, away off, in the direction of a wood, a sharp but faint bark was heard. Again the bugles sounded, and a great cheer arose. Louder became the barking, more joyous the bugle-blasts, until presently a big dog came tearing across the stretch of open.

It was Taps, and, borne aloft by series of eager arms, he was hustled aboard the train. His tongue was hanging out, his hair clogged with mud, which told the story. He had gone into a distant swamp to have a swim, and had become mired, only making his escape under the influence of the strains he knew so well.

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A School-Boy of Long Ago Moses, the tiny baby who was found in the bulrushes by his own sister, where his mother had hidden him that he might not be killed by the Egyptians, became, by this cleverly devised plot, the adopted son of a great Egyptian princess. This princess had her own palace and servants, her wise men and priests. Her adopted son had all the advantages of her time. No doubt Moses became a wiser man, a greater man, than he could have become had he grown up among his own people. The Israelites were slaves in the land, and could not educate their children. Living in a royal household, Moses met travelers and learned men from all parts of Egypt, and from other lands. This meeting with great men trained him in manners, as well as educated him.

The Egyptians of that day understood mathematics, for they built houses and tombs that stand to-day. They built roads, so they must have known how to survey. They

studied astronomy, anatomy, and history. They understood magic, and must have studied drawing. They believed in a relig. ion most difficult to understand, and the boys were instructed in religion as an important part of their education. They had athletic games, in which wrestling held a very important place. Archery was one of their games, as the pictures on their buildings show. The priesthood was the profession requiring the best education, for the practice of medicine and law was included as part of a priest's duties. To get service in the king's household was the ambition of the Egyptian boys to whom the army service did not appeal. The magicians had great power, and the study of magic was attractive to some boys.

The adopted son of a princess would have opportunity to undertake any study that appealed to him. The greatness of Moses's service, his wisdom and courage, are proofs that he used his opportunities, and used them to serve God and his people.

Brave Men

Buildings are erected now very much higher than they used to be, because steel has come into use in the erection of buildings. All very high buildings are built as nearly fireproof as possible, but wood is still used, and fires break out high above the point where water can be thrown from the street. When a tall building is constructed, a pipe is built in (sometimes more than one) that has a projection on every floor, to which a hose can be attached. On the roof is a tank which is kept full of water by the aid of an engine in the cellar of the building. When a fire breaks out, the hose is attached to the nozzle on the floor where the fire is.

Fire-engines are built now that can throw water almost three hundred feet in the air, at the rate of fifteen hundred gallons a minute.

Firemen are very brave. They will go into a burning building and fight the fire until the stairs are burned away, or the flames from the windows prevent their coming down the ladders. A gun has been invented that will carry a line to a fireman on a tall building, just as it carries a line from the shore to a sinking ship.

Water-towers are made to carry hose to a very great height, and they now have movable platforms which enable the firemen to fight the fire from these platforms at any floor as well as from the top of the tower,

The Home Club

Removing Stains

By Jennie Comstock

The many accidents possible to the fabrics used in housekeeping make necessary a knowledge of elementary chemistry, if damage is to be repaired at once. Without this knowledge, the amount of loss from these accidents forms, in the course of the year, quite an item in the household accounts. The following directions for the removal of stains bear about the same relation to household chemistry as the most elementary lessons in First

simple method of disinfecting is to plunge the clothes into boiling water and boil for half an hour. After this process most germs, if any were present, would be killed. Anthrax germs would have to be boiled a second time. For common use, where a solution is required, Hg C12 tablets come already prepared. These simply need to be dissolved in water to make a solution of the required strength, i. e., 1 part to 2,000 parts.

Handkerchiefs which have been used for colds should be soaked in a disinfectant and




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Place bowl on table, spread stained part over it, pour boiling water on it from a height so as to strike the stain with force.

Spread stained portion over bowl; pour boiling water on from a height, perhaps, of eighteen inches to two feet.

If stain is fresh, place stained portion in milk and allow to stand. If the milk becomes too much discolored, drain milk off and put on more. If stain is dry, and will not come out as above, use salts of lemon or Javelle water pour on, allow to stand a few minutes, and wash thoroughly.

Rub lemon on and set in direct sunlight.

Rub with salts of lemon or Javelle water and wash thoroughly.

Soak stained portion in alcohol; rub.

Rub with same material if wet; if dry, soak and soften with vaseline; rub with benzine.

Place in sunshine in soap solution. It is difficult to remove entirely, and requires patience.

Rub from outside toward the center, using great care not to spread.

Place goods on absorbent paper and press it with a hot

Wash in soap and warm water, not hot.
Rub on wet and allow to dry.
Expose to sun for a few hours.
Treat the same as fruit stains.
Rub on stain, then wash.

Aid to the Injured bear to trained nursing. All acids and strong alkalies tend to eat the fiber, so that much skill is required in using them. They must be used quickly and accurately to avoid bad results.

Disinfecting. Sometimes it is necessary to disinfect clothing before laundrying. Extra precautions must be taken in case of laundry work, as serious consequences might result from carelessness. An ordinary and

washed separately before putting in with the rest of the clothing for boiling. A good disinfectant solution is salt water.

Home Lessons from the War

If the present investigation as to the causes of illness in the United States army during the recent campaign in Cuba and in the home camps results in no other good, it will reveal to the housekeepers of this country

the connection between cleanliness and health. It is startling to have one witness after another testify that the prevalence of typhoid fever was due almost wholly to the neglect of the simplest sanitary laws. Probably never before was it made so clear that flies were the transmitters of disease. The second lesson that this investigation will teach is the necessity of training the people of this country in sanitary laws. It has been stated that in nothing was the difference between the regular and the volunteer regiments seen so clearly as in the condition of their camps; that when a regular regiment broke camp and left, except for the tramped condition of the ground it left no evidence of its presence, while the camps of the volunteers were strewn with refuse, littered with papers and débris of all descriptions. In the matter of food, it is claimed that the failure of the convalescent volunteers to obey orders in regard to eating was one of the prolific sources of relapses. The regular had been trained to know how to care for himself. There has been a vast advance in this country in the knowledge of sanitary laws and hygiene in the past few years, but there are great numbers of people totally ignorant of these laws to-day, and indifferent to their operations; people too dull of comprehension to see the evil effects of their ignorance or their indifference. The women's clubs of the country have done much through their departments of domestic science, but much more is to be done.

No confusion should exist in the minds of women as to what domestic science is. It is not merely learning how to cook; it means the possession of a knowledge of chemistry which will enable the housekeeper to apply it to detect possible disease; to detect adulterations of food. It means a knowledge of the surface and drainage conditions under which the house is built; it means knowing the difference between perfect and imperfect plumbing; it means being able to purchase food that will nourish the family, not simply stop the cravings of hunger.

A college woman, not long ago, called attention to her boy's teeth, which were entirely without enamel, and said, with a bitter little laugh, "I wish my education had enabled me to discover, during the time my boy was producing his teeth, both first and second, just how to feed him. There is no enamel on his teeth because his mother did not know enough to feed him properly; and the dentist tells me

that at twenty-five he will not have a tooth in his head." Fortunately, college women have turned their attention to those departments of science which have enabled them to do much to reduce the preventable miseries of improper feeding and unsanitary conditions. Books written by college women have appeared which discuss this whole problem of feeding and caring for children, of building a house, furnishing it, and caring for it.

The Kitchen and Bedroom

To differ with a recognized authority in the housekeeping arts is to place one's self in an unfortunate position. A book has been printed recently that will be found helpful and suggestive to even the most efficient housekeepers, a book that will be an invaluable guide to the inexperienced housekeeper. The furnishing of the kitchen is given the attention it should receive, but some housekeepers would differ from this authority in the choice of materials. For instance, the author advises the use of labeled tin receptacles for the store-closet. Any housekeeper who has used glass jars, which show at a glance the amount of the contents, would never use any. thing else. No housekeeper who has covered her kitchen tables with zinc would consider leaving her kitchen table in the wood, nor covering with white oilcloth. The zinc table can be covered with a tablecloth when not in use. No housekeeper who has used a marble-slab table for pastry would for a moment think of using a board, any more than a wooden rolling-pin if she had ever used porcelain or glass. Most of us have kitchens that are too large, and, for that reason, cause too many steps. The perfect kitchen will be lined with closets with glass doors, having plenty of drawers, supplied with sliding shelves below the glass doors. The cupboards will have room for hanging all cooking utensils but the heaviest. The center of the kitchen will be occupied by a closet no higher than a table, and with an available top that will have conveniences for holding about twenty-four pounds of flour, all the smaller articles used in making pastry, spice-box, towel-drawer, and one for knives, forks, and spoons. We shall in the perfect house treat our bedrooms as bedrooms and not sitting-rooms. They will not have pictures, nor draperies, except to secure privacy. Parlors are fast disappearing, and the living-room is coming to be the center of decoration and care.

Vol. 60

The Outlook

Resignation of the French Ministry

Published Weekly

November 5, 1898

Last week was anticipated with many forebodings in France. No sooner was the session of the Chamber of Deputies opened on Tuesday than M. Deroulède, one of the most violent of the antiSemitic leaders, made an attack on the Minister of War, General Chanoine. The attack was evidently unexpected, and the General was unaccustomed to public speech. He mounted the tribune and made a halting and rather incoherent statement; in which he made it clear, however, in regard to the Dreyfus case, that he was of the same opinion as his predecessor in the Ministry of War. He made the usual statement that he was "the guardian of the honor of the army," and he ended, apparently in anger, by tendering his resignation. The retirement of the Minister of War was evidently a complete surprise to the Premier, and M. Brisson declared that when the question of submitting the documents in the Dreyfus case to the Court of Cassation was before the Cabinet General Chanoine had not raised any objection. He declared further that the Government was fully determined to uphold the civil power against the military, and asked for a suspension of the business of the Chamber, which was promptly granted. On the reassembling of the Chamber, M. Brisson declared that what he called the "irregular resignation" of the Minister of War had been accepted. A debate followed, in which the former Minister of War, M. Cavaignac, upon ascending the tribune, was greeted with shouts of "Forgery!" and "Razor!" A resolution affirming the su premacy of the civil over the military power was adopted by a practically unanimous vote, but, in the midst of a great uproar, an amendment to censure the Government "for not causing the honor of the army to be respected" was lost. This was followed by a resolution calling upon the Government to "end the campaign of insult against the

No. 10

army." The Premier refused to accept this motion, and, on a vote being taken, it was found that the motion had been carried. A deputy promptly moved a vote of confidence in M. Brisson, which was defeated by 286 votes to 254; whereupon the Ministers withdrew from the Chamber, and, within a few hours, handed in their resignations to President Faure. During the session of the Chamber the streets in some quarters were filled with excited crowds. The police found it impossible to preserve order, and it was found necessary to call in the troops in order to clear the Rue Royale and the open space in front of the Madeleine.

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of Justice, where the Court of Cassation took up the consideration of the reopening of the Dreyfus case. Great crowds were in attendance, but there was no disorder. Madame Dreyfus was present, with Labori, who was counsel for Zola in the famous trial. The case was called upon the opening of the court, and Recorder Bard began his address by referring to the scandals which had surrounded the case from the beginning. He reviewed at length the history of the case from the time of the arrest of Dreyfus, and characterized the offense for which he was condemned as one of those crimes which inspire universal horror. He gave a résumé of the efforts made to obtain a revision of the case, including Madame Dreyfus's appeal for a revision, which was based on the assumption that the bordereau, or written memorandum, which is supposed to constitute the principal source of evidence, was written by Major Esterhazy. The authenticity of the Dreyfus signature to that document had been questioned by experts; the document itself was surrounded by suspicion. The

action of the Ministry which had brought the case before the Court of Cassation was decided upon in consequence of the confession of Colonel Henry that he had forged a document in the case; and although that forgery was committed two years after the rendering of judgment in 1894, yet the confession could not but affect the value of Henry's evidence in the original trial, and upon that evidence, largely, Dreyfus was convicted. M. Bard also called attention to the statement of Colonel Du Paty de Clam that at the time of his arrest Dreyfus betrayed intense excitement. A photograph of the handwriting of Dreyfus at this moment, however, gave not the slightest indication of excitement.

Revision Ordered

M. Bard referred also to the fact that the house of Colonel Picquart had been searched, while the house of Major Esterhazy had never been examined. Last year Colonel Picquart had written a letter to the Minister of Justice in which, among several arguments against the possibility of the guilt of Dreyfus, he called attention to the impossibility of access to the plans of fortresses and projects for the movement of troops on the part of Dreyfus, while Major Esterhazy had free access to this information. M. Bard also recalled Colonel Picquart's statement that he had proofs in his hands which established the innocence of Dreyfus; that he was absolutely convinced of his innocence, and that he proposed not to rest until he had fought the matter to the end. Attention was called to Colonel Picquart's charges that the Minister of War and the General Staff had tampered with the documents, and had manufactured evidence in the case. M. Mornard, the counsel for Madame Dreyfus, emphasized the divergence of opinion among the experts who examined the bordereau in 1894-'97, and insisted that the question whether secret documents were handed to the members of the court martial should be looked into. The Public Prosecutor, M. Manau, declared that Major Esterhazy ought to be brought to testify on the question of the bordereau. After a deliberation of three or four hours, the Court of Cassation, on Saturday, decided to grant a revision of the case, and to institute a supplementary inquiry, which is to be conducted, not by another court martial, but by the Court of Cassation. In the meantime Dreyfus is to be kept in

confinement. The decision appears to have created no excitement in Paris. No attempt at disorder was made in the vicinity of the Court, and the disorderly elements in the city appear to have been under the control of the authorities since the first outbreak on the day of the opening of the Assembly. M. Dupuy has been endeavoring to organize a Cabinet. M. Dupuy brings to the office of Premier a long experience, a conservative temper, and the necessary firmness, and on Monday of this week it is announced that he has succeeded, and that M. de Freycinet will be Minister of War.

The Fashoda Matter in England

With the exception of a few protesting Irishmen, Great Britain is a unit on the question of the English control of the Nile Valley, from the river's mouth to its source; the Government has taken the country into its confidence by publishing all its official correspondence; speeches have been made daily during the past week by Liberal and Conservative leaders, and, so far as can be judged, there is but one feeling throughout Great Britain. No English Ministry has had more unqualified and enthusiastic support in any position for a great many years past. A careful reading of the correspondence shows that Lord Salisbury has been consistent in his position throughout; and the fear, widely entertained, that he had made some concession, or shown some signs of weakness, proves to be entirely without foundation. He is shown to have instructed the British Ambassador in Paris to represent to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs that the right of the Egyptian and British Government to the valley of the Nile was not open for discussion. So late as the first week in last month, the Prime Minister, in consenting to forward a French message to Major Marchand, instructed the English Ambassador to state to the French Minister that this act on the part of the English Government did not imply the slightest modification of its position or views, and that, in the view of the English Government, the expedition of Major Marchand "has no practical effect, nor can any political significance be attached to it." It does not appear that M. Delcassé, in his dispatches, takes any positive ground against the English claim. He asks for time in order that detailed information may be received from Major Marchand, and says

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