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tell fortunes, declared to him that Michael and another officer of his staff were marked out for Imperial rank in the future, he lost no time in taking measures to unite them with his family. He prepared a feast, and chose them out of all the officers to be his guests, to their own astonishment.

But a greater surprise awaited them, for when they were heated with wine, he offered them his daughters in marriage. At this unexpected condescension, the young men, of whom one at least was of humble birth, were stupefied and speechless. They drew back at first from an honour of which they deemed themselves unworthy; but the superstitious general overcame their scruples, and the marriages took place. Thus it came about that Michael won Thecla, who became the mother of the Emperor Theophilus. The other son-in-law, whoever he mny have been, was not so fortunate; in his cusu the soothsuyer was conspicuously at fault."

Theophilus, for whom Leo V. had probably stood sponsor," was adult when his father came to the throne, and on the following Whitsunday (May 12 A.D. 821) Michael, according to the usual practice, secured the succession by elevating him to the rank of Basileus and Augustus. The ceremony of his marriage was celebrated on the same occasion. Having

1 Her name is known from Con. υπό 'Αντωνίου πατριάρχου και το του stantine, Cor. 645, and Michael Syr. γάμου και τα της βασιλείας στέφει τη 72. Simeon and the l'ita Thcodorac ayla TEVTIKOOT . (Cp. vers. Slav. 93, state that Theophilus was the son of and Add. Gcorg. 790; the text of Leo Michael's second wife, Euphrosyne. Gr. is imperfect.) See Brooks, op. cit.

? The story is told by Gen. 31 542, who rightly says that this is an (=Cont. Th. 44.)

authentic notice which must be separ. 3 Gen. 12.

ated from the legend which precedes 4 The true date of the elevation of it. It is not clear whether all these Theophilus and his marriage has been ceremonies were prerformed on the ascertained by Brooks (B.2. 10, 540) same day. The crowning of Theo591.). The will of Justinian, Duke of philus with the diadem (oté una or Venice, quates indiction 7 (.1.D. 328. diadnua) must have come first, and 829) with the ninth year of Michael was performed in St. Sophia ; the and the righteenth(mistake for eighth) ceremony is described in Constantine, of Theophilus. This is compatible Cor. i. 38. We must not press the with his coronation in A.D. 821 or 822. notice so as to imply that Michael was Now there are no coins of Michael II. absent himself and deputed the Patri. alone (see Wroth, ii. 416), and this arch to crown his son. Except in the fact, combined with the probability Emperor's absence, the Patriarch that the Emperor would not delay handed the crown to him, and he long to crown his son, justifies us in placed it on his colleague's head. deciding for 821. The day of the The marriage ceremony was always ceremony is recorded by Sinicon.

performed in the Church of St. Stephen s Sinieon (Theod. Biel. 147), or del in Daplıne, and is described Cér. i. δε θεοδώραν εν τη ευκτηρία του αγίου 39 (tlie.nuptial crown is otedávwua, Στεφάνου, στεφθείς και αυτός άμα αυτή as distinguished from the Imperial

received the Imperial crown from his father's hands in St. Sophia, he was wedded by the Patriarch, in the Church of St. Stephen in the Palace, to Theodora, a Paphlagonian lady, whose father and uncle were officers in the army." The ceremony was followed by her coronation as Augusta.

It is probable that the provincial Theodora, of an obscure but well-to-do fanily, was discovered by means of the bride-show custoin which in the eighth and ninth centuries was habitually employed for the purpose of selecting brides for Imperial heirs. Messengers were sent into the provinces to search for maidens who seemed by their exceptional physical attractions and their mental qualities worthy of sharing the throne of un Emperor. They were guided in their selection by certain fixed standards; they rejected all candidates who did not conform, in stature and in the dimensions of their heads and feet, to prescribed measures of beauty.It was thus that Maria, discovered in a small town in Paphlagonia, came to be the consort of Constantine VI., and we saw how a bride-show was held for the wedding of Stauracius. In later times

." Michael III. and Leo VI. would win their brides in the same fashion ;5 and it is not improbable that Irene of Athenis owed her marriage with Leo IV. to this custom.

The bride-show of Theophilus has been embroidered with legendary details, and it has been misdated, but there is no reason for doubting that it was actually held. The story represents Theophilus as still unmarried when he became sole Emperor after his father's death, His stepmother Euphrosyne

3 Ib. 74 399.

στέμμα). The coronation of the uncle, the general Manuel, was an Augusta was celebrated in the samo Armenian (Cont. Th. 148). place (ib. i. 40). The procedure where

? Vila Philarcti, ed. Vasil'ev, in the narriago and coronation of an Augusta were combined is described measured Maria's height, her lavpátor,

Izv. Kpl. v. 76. The Imperial agents ib. i. 41. For the succession of

i.e. her head and face, and her foot Antonins to the Patriarchate, sco

(του ποδός το πέδιλον). below, p. 115.

? Her father was Marinos, a drun. garios, if not a turmarch. He belonged

* Above, p. 15. to the town of Ebissa (Cont. Th. 89). 8 Michael III.: Vita Irenes, 603. In the same passage the fact that Leo VI.: Vita Theophanus, ed. Kurtz Theodora had been crowned “long (Zapiski imp. Ak. Nauk. viiic sér. ago," a élai on, i.e. before her husband's iii. 2 (1898), p. 5). The custom, but accession to the autocracy, is recorded. perhaps in a modified form, made its For the family relations of Theodora way into France: Lewis the Pious see below, Chapter V. p. 156, Genca- chose his wife Judith, inspectis plerislogical Table. She was of Armenian quc nobilium filiabus (Ann. 1. Pr. descent, at least on one side, for her 150, A.D. 819).


assembled the maidlens, who had been gathered from all the provinces, in the l'earl-chamber in the Palace, and gave the Emperor a golden apple to bestow upon her who pleased him best.' Thcophilus hulted before Kusiu, a ludy of striking beauty and literary attainments, and addressed to her a cynical remark, apparently couched in metrical form," to which she had a ready answer in the same style.

Theophilus :
A woman was the fount and source

Of all man's tribulation.

Kasia :
And from a woman sprang the course

Of man's regeneration.

The boldness of the retort did not please the Emperor, and he gave the golden apple to Theodora.

It was in the spring of A.D. 821, and not nine years later, that Theophilus made his choice, and it was his mother, Thecla, if she was still alive, and not Euphrosyne, who presided over the bride-show. Some may think that the golden apple, the motif of the judgment of Paris, must be rejected as a legendary trait in the story; yet it seems possible that the apple had been deliberately borrowed from the Greek myth as a symbol by which the Emperor intimated his choice and was a regular feature of the Byzantine brideshows. Nor does there seen any reason to doubt that the poetess Kasia was one of the chosen maidens; and the passage between her and the Emperor is, if not true, happily invented so far as her extant epigrams reveal her character.' Dis

The story in its genuinc form is θ. ζω γύναι, δια γυναικός ζεισ ερρύη τα told by Simcun (All. Geory. 790). It φαύλα. is completely altered and corrupted in Κ. αλλά και δια γυναικός τα κρείττονα Vitit Thcolorac, (sce below). The πηγάζει. Pearl-chanıber (apyapírou tpixlivos) is (text: rny. kp.). I pointed this an anachronism. It was one of the out in Gibbon, v. 199 note, and Engl. new buildings of Theophilus himself llist. Re:. xiii. p. 310 (1898). (sec below, p. 131). The bride-show of 3 Eudocia, his mother (not Basil), Leo VI. was held {v TV Baoilerco manages the bride-show of Leo VI. ταμιείο της περιβλέπτου Μανούρας (Vita . (Vita Theophanus, loc. cit.). Theophanus, loc. cit.).

• Her strong opinions came out in ? With slight change the dialogo her epigrams ; she did not suffer fools in the chroniclc falls into the “politi. gladly: soc tho versos on the wūpos in cal motre," which I have refiruiluced Krumbacher, hnsia, p. 362, cp: p. 385. in English:

Three hymns of Kasia aro printed in

appointed in her chance of empire, Kasia resolved to renounce the world, and a letter of Theodore, the abbot of Studion, is preserved in which he approves of her design, and compliments her on the learning and skill of some literary compositions which she had sent himn.

The pleasing story of the bride-show of Theophilus, in which Kasia is the heroine, did not find favour with the monk who wrote an edifying biography of the sainted Theodora. lle would not allow that she owed her clevation to the too reruly tongue of her rival who had presumed to measure wits with the Emperor, and he invented a different story in which Kasia is ignored. According to this frigid fiction, Theophilus

” selected seven of the maidens, gave each of them an apple, and summoned them again on the morrow. He asked each of them for her apple, but the apples were not forthcoming. Theodora alone procluced hers, and along with it offered a second to the Emperor. "This first apple, which I have kept safe," she said, “is the emblem of my maiden hood; the second, do not decline it, is the fees of the son which shall be born to us.” When Theophilus, in amazement, asked her to explain this “ oracle,” she told him that at Nicomedia, on her way to Constantinople, she had visited a holy man who lived in a tower, and that he had prophesied her elevation to the throne and had given her the apple." Christ and l'aranikas, Anth. Gracca είδει, της τε κάνονας και στίχους τη carm. Christianorum, 103-104; another σάσης εν τοις χρόνοις θεοφίλου και του in Krumbacher, 347 sqr. Krumbacher vioù autoii. · The convent seems to has shown that her name was Kisia, have been somewliere on the Seventh not Eikitsia or Ikasia as the chronicle Hill, near the Constantinian Wall (cp. has, and he conjectures that Eixaoia van Millingen, Walls, 22-23). arose from ý kraoia (317). Accepting 2 Vita Theulurar, t. Melioranski the date of the bride-slow as c. 830, characterise's this narrative as he places her birth c. 810 ; but the polemical pendant" to the story of true date of the marriage of Thco. Kasia (I: sem. ist. 12). He thinks philus shows that the year of her that the use of dupotépas, p. 3, is an birth must have been in the neigh- allusion to kasia's rivalry; but bourhood of 800. She was still & . αμφοτέρας here means all. very young girl whon she decided to

δηνάριον. become a nun (see next note), so * The beauty of Theodora was cele. that we might conjecture the date to brated in Spain by the poet Yahya be c. 804.

al-Ghazzal, who was sent by Abul ar. Ep. 270, Cozza - Luzi (cp. A. Rahman as an envoy to the Court of Gardner, Thcolore, 266 899.). The Theophilus (A.D. 839.810).

He was tenth-century author of the llárpia conversing with the Emperor when Królews (ed. Preger, 276) notices the Thcolora entered “dressed in all her convent foumal by hisia nnd clexcribes lin«ry--& rising sun in beauty. Al. lier της μοναχής, ευπρεπούς και ευ. Ghazzal was so surprised that he could λαβούς και σεβασμιας γυναικός, ώραίας τη 1100 tiko his eyes from hier," and

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§ 2. The Civil War (A.D. 821-823) of the three actors in the historical drama which was said to have been shadowed forth by the soothsayer of Philomelion, one has passed finally from the scene. The last act is to take the form of a conflict between the two survivors, Michael of Amorion and Thomas of Gaziura. This conflict is generally known as the rebellion of Thomas, but it assumed the dimensions and the dignity of a civil war. Two rivals fought for a crown, which one of them had seized, but could not yet be said to have firmly grasped. Michael had been regularly elected, acclaimed, and crowned in the capital, and he had the advantage of possessing the Imperial city. His adversary had the support of most of the Asiatic provinces ; he was only a rebel because he failed.

We have seen how Thomas clung to his master and patron Bardanes whom others had deserted (A.D, 803). When the cause of Bardanes was lost, he probably saved himself by fleeing to Syria and taking up his abode among the Saracens, with whom he had lived before. For in the reign of Irene he had entered the service of a patrician, and, having been discovered in an attempt to comunit adultery with his master's wife, he was constrained to seek a refuge in the doininions of the Caliph, where he seems to have lived for a considerable time. His second sojourn there lasted for


ceased to attend to the conversation. Theophilus expressed astonishment at his rudeness, and the poet said to the interpreter, “Tell thy master that I am so captivatiul loy the charms of this queen that I am prerented from listening. Say that I never saw in my life a handsomer wo:nan.

“He tien began to describe one by one all her charnis, and to print his amazement at hier inconsparablc beauty, and concluded by saying that she had captivated him with her black eyes " (Makkari, ii. 115).

1 There is an explicit statement in the Acta Darilis (a well - informed source), 232: having served Bardanes, he fel, on account of mislecids, to the Saracens and lay quiet during the reigns of Nicephorus, Stauracius, Michael I., and a great part of Leo's

reign (this is incorrect). Michael II., in Ep. ad Lud. 117, says that he abolc among the unbelievers until the reign of Lco, and during that time became a Mohammadan in order to gain in. fluence with the Saracens.

? For a discussion of the difficulties, see Bury, B.Z. i. 55 sqq., where it is shown that the patrician was not Barılanes, as Genesios alleges (35). Michael (En, ail Lud., il.) docs not pame the patrician. The fact seems to be that Thomas first fled c. A.D. 788, and only returned in a. 1). S03 to assist Bardanes ; so that he might be roughly described as having lived with the Saracens for twenty-five years (Gen. ib.). This I now believe to be the true cxplanation of the twenty-five years, and not that which I suggested loc. cit.

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